Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    For me it is an honour to write the introduction to this issue of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)", because it is not number more than our magazine, not at all. It collects the papers presented at the I Workshop "Engineering Research for Rural Development". As one famous Castilian proverb "He who has seen it and who sees it", yes, I am referring to our department Agroforestry Engineering, which started life does now, about 15 years. If we look back, I dare say, we do not even know the mother who brought us to the world. And this we have been able to achieve, together, through effort and sacrifice.

    We've been through difficult times and still have to deal with other, even more complicated, but if we all do one´s bit and lend a hand, we will move forward and I am sure that will continue to occupy the place that we have earned within our university. Because if all think altruistically, we realize that our potential "enemies" are not within our department, not at all. It is therefore important to consider the department as a "whole" that is capable of holding different positions, but all of them legitimate. "There is nothing smaller than a large dominated by pride" and "One side of caution is that what can be done for good, not made for evil" ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de La Mancha" Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    Ramón Velo Sabín

    Estos diez artículos que se recogen en este volumen especial, son el resultado de la realización del “1º Workshop: Investigación para el Desarrollo Rural” que tuvo lugar en la Escuela Politécnica Superior de Lugo de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, el 1 de marzo de 2012. El Programa de Doctorado “Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Rural” que ha sido distinguido con Mención hacia la Excelencia 2011-2014 por el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, aglutina líneas de investigación enmarcadas en 4 áreas de conocimiento: ingeniería agroforestal, ingeniería cartográfica, geodésica y fotogrametría, ingeniería hidráulica y proyectos de ingeniería.

    Estas aportaciones de algunos de los estudiantes inscritos en el Programa, con distinto grado de desarrollo en sus investigaciones y que van a culminar en una tesis doctoral, proporcionan una visión de la amplitud y variedad de los grupos de investigación pertenecientes al Departamento de Ingeniería Agroforestal. Estos grupos reciben las siguientes denominaciones: Construcción Sostenible, Diseño de Productos y Procesos, Energía y Mecanización Agroforestal, Gestión Forestal Sostenible, Ingeniería de Costas y del Agua, Modelización Forestal e Industrias Forestales, Proyectos y Planificación, Territorio y Biodiversidad, USCAN3D Documentación.

    Los resultados alcanzados en estos últimos años, avalan que el programa de doctorado dispone de recursos humanos y materiales suficientes para dar lugar a un número de tesis doctorales de adecuada calidad. En estos cinco últimos años se han leído 18 que se han difundido a través de artículos y ponencias en congresos. Que la USC se sitúe en 6º lugar en el ranking de todas las universidades españolas en el campo de las ciencias agrarias seguro que se debe principalmente a nuestra significativa participación. El crecimiento de la producción científica en nuestro departamento ha sido notable al igual a lo ocurrido en toda la universidad española. La tarea pendiente que se presenta como un reto, es poner en valor, para su reconocimiento y gratificación, la transferencia de ese conocimiento. La investigación precisa de la necesaria financiación pública, pero a medio o largo plazo está demostrado que recuperan esa inversión. Con porcentajes del orden de 1,3 del gasto total en I+D en relación al PIB que existen en España, resulta extremadamente difícil alcanzar objetivos ambiciosos.

    Pero también otros de los aspectos que están sin resolverse en las universidades de forma adecuada y que siguen siendo objeto de debate, son la no consolidación de la carrera investigadora, el reconocimiento de la investigación y de la transferencia, así como la dedicación a estas actividades por parte del profesorado. Alrededor del 15% de los doctores que tiene empleo trabajan en la empresa privada, más del 40% en las universidades y el 35% en la administración pública, de acuerdo con datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Se trata de una tarea pendiente que el mundo empresarial valore y por tanto favorezca la integración de los doctores fuera de la universidad.

    Las universidades contribuimos a la innovación porque investigamos, aportamos a los doctores capacidades y competencias necesarias para la innovación pero un tercer aspecto decisivo y que no hemos desarrollado satisfactoriamente, sobre todo en España, son los vínculos para canalizar el conocimiento hacia las empresas. Es necesario que con el doctorado los investigadores adquieran una buena competencia en capacidades transversales como el espíritu innovador y emprendedor y las habilidades comunicativas, que deberían permitirles incorporarse a cualquier puesto de trabajo en el que se requiera una capacidad crítica, un planteamiento sistemático de los problemas y cómo resolverlos.

    En el doctorado se adquieren o se deben adquirir competencias tales como: el dominio de las habilidades y métodos de investigación, la capacidad de poner en práctica investigación con seriedad académica, la capacidad de realizar un análisis crítico, la evaluación y síntesis de ideas nuevas, el fomento del avance tecnológico dentro de una sociedad basada en el conocimiento y proporcionar una alta capacitación profesional en ámbitos donde se requiera creatividad e innovación. Los Programas de Doctorado de calidad deben ser priorizados en la financiación porque de ese modo se incrementará la transferencia de las universidades y por añadidura mejorará la función docente y consecuentemente contribuirán a fortalecer la imagen de las universidades.

    Finalmente quiero agradecer a la Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU) hacer posible la difusión de estos trabajos y animarla a seguir colaborando con la extensión y organización de actividades científicas y tecnológicas.

  • Evaluation of genetic algorithms for the management of harvesters. Case study.

    Cascudo, N., Bueno, J., Amiama C.

    In this work we have evaluated several algorithms based on genetic metaheuristics applied to the route management of self-propelled forage harvesters. The objective is to minimize the travel distance of forage harvesters, because her limited trafficability, and thus reduce downtime. We started with a classical genetic algorithm and we have made changes to the methodology of the initial population generation and the crossing process. Previously we have analyzed the input parameter settings searching the combination that provides the best results. The results obtained were compared with the actual paths performed by the harvesters, for a period of three weeks. The results obtained shown that the number of plots considered has a great weight in the savings obtained with the use of these tools. Better results were obtained with the algorithm called PG, but in weekly scheduling, differences with the CG version were not significant. The use of genetic algorithms has enabled to get savings in terms of time and money.

  • Implantation of automatic milking system in Galicia.

    Castro, A., Pereira, J. M.

    The whole of Galician dairy farmers that on summer 2009 had installed an automatic milking system (AMS), have been interviewed with the help of a survey. This questionnaire captures the socioeconomics and structural aspects of their farms. Over 29 of these dairy farms a study was realized to determine the efficiency in this milking system. The farmers that invested in an AMS are relatively young, representing the successor on their farms with a educational level ever higher. With an average area of 44,5 hectares of land, only 1/3 of the farms produce forage needed for their livestock density. Generally they are very intensive dairy farms. The most important reasons to install the robotic milking in Galicia was the labour reduction and labour flexibility. With the introduction of the AMS, farmers agree with that their quality of life and the quality of life from their family had improved. The robotics milking currently used in Galicia milked below its maximum occupation, with a milk yield of 549734 kg per year and a milking downtime of 1974 h/year.

  • The need of the cost analysis to improve efficiency in dairy cattle farms.

    Escudero, C., Álvarez, C., Irimia, C.


    The price of the milk paid to the producer suffered big fluctuations in the last years. They had certain stability until the year 2006, with big raises during two later years and producing a notable decrease of the year 2008 in forward. To find a lacteal producer who knows the costs of production of his exploitation is extremely difficult in our community. This is the reality of the majority of the dairy farms of Galicia. The ignorance of the costs of production on the part of the ranchers, they limit his survival, it locates them in situation of disadvantage opposite to the industry and his capacity of negotiation stops with a view to the establishment prices in the lacteal contracts. In this context there places the base of the investigation proposed as significant form of contributing solutions to the problems of the lacteal sector of Galicia.

  • Stand volume equation for plantations of saplings of Eucalytus globulus Labill. in NW of Spain.

    García-Villabrille, J.D., Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    A stand volume equation for Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in the NW of Spain is presented. The experimental design consisted of 85 plots, located along a 45-50 km strip, from the coast side to the interior of Galicia (NW of Spain), which coincides with the main area of distribution for the species in the region. An alometric model with basal area and dominant height as independent variables was selected after fitting 15 models, providing estimations with a mean error of
    11.44 m3 ha-1 .

  • The variability of organizational efficiency in dairy cattle farms in Galicia.

    Irimia, S., Álvarez, C., Escudero, C.

    The present article presents a study in 50 developments, representative of the lacteal Galician sector (NW Spain), in a range between 30 and 50 cows, where there was analyzed the organizational efficiency of the labors of supply, milking and cleanliness, measuring directly the time consumed in these operations, as well as the characteristics of typology of the same ones. With this information the efficiency decided o0rganizativa in each of the tasks mentioned previously for each of 50 developments, expressed in kg of Full Cream Milk for working hour. From this information we made a classification of farms according to their efficiency of milking, cleaning and feeding, which determines the most efficient characteristics decided for the accomplishment of the productive processes and the design of developments. This line of investigation seeks to achieve superior returns in dairy cattle farms in Galicia, giving recommendations to improve the values of the efficiency, in his productive processes.

  • Close-range terrestrial photogrammetry in 3D documentation: Review of cases.

    Martínez, S., Ortiz, J., Gil, M.L.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining 3D digital models of objects of different sizes and characteristics, so as to show its present usefulness and to point out future lines of application. This study is based on the review of multiple cases realized by the investigation group USCAN3D by means of low-cost photogrammetry and automatic image matching. The equipment used in the present work comprises basically close-range photogrammetric software and a standard digital camera for taking the photos. This simple and versatile methodology can be complementary, as well as other 3D modelling systems, with traditional methods and in some cases can even substitute them. This is possible mainly because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness and to the interactive properties, possibility of analysis and diffusion of the 3D models obtained.

  • Analysis of natural rubber in the world

    Pulido-Sierra S.I., Silva-Calvão M.E., Ferreira-Neto J.A., Rojo-Alboreca A.

    The aim of this paper is to describe the situation in the sector of natural rubber in the world, analyzing the planted areas, dynamics of production and consumption as well as some factors that impact the supply. Despite its South American origin, the largest areas of plantations of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müell. Arg), and higher yields are concentrated in Asia. Several Asian countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Vietnam and China) account for 92% of the planted area and of the world production. Among the South American countries, Brazil reaches 1% of world production; the rest of countries does not reach those numbers nor do the countries of Africa and Oceania, and collectively account for 8% of world production. The high yields of natural rubber plantations of the Asian countries are due in part to the concentration of surface, the improvement of farming techniques for over eight decades, the breeding of cloned plant material and the introduction of policies that favor the development of the sector. Other factors affecting the global supply of natural rubber are the weather conditions, the socio-political situation in some producing countries, the environmental concerns, oil prices, the slow-down of U.S. economy and the economic crisis in the Eurozone.

  • Techno-economic analysis of the viability of the connection of small wind turbines in dairy cattle farms connected to the mains.

    Osorio, L., Velo, R.

    This study presents an assessment of the electric energy’s cost in a dairy farm with forty heads of cattle when it is supplied by the grid with wind energy sources. In order to consider the optimal system configuration of wind energy or non-wind energy system, the HOMER program (version 2.68 beta) is used. The possibility of selling electric energy’s excess generated by small wind turbines of different sizes (3, 6, 10, 20 and 50 kW) is analyzed in different locations which have different wind speed average rates, with an established energy demand throughout the year. Moreover, sensitivity analysis based on different prices of electric energy sold (0,22; 0,32; 0,42 €/kWh) and electric energy purchased (0,16; 0,24 €/kWh) are compared in the cost of energy (COE), the internal rate of return (IRR) and the payback time on investment, taking as reference values the option of non-selling electric energy.

  • Quantitative evaluation of groundwater resources of the river basin in Galicia Coast.

    Raposo, J.R., Dafonte, J.

    Quantification of groundwater recharge in crystalline rocks presents great difficulties due to high heterogeneity. Traditionally these rocks have been considered with very low permeability, and their groundwater resources have been usually neglected, although they can have local importance when the bedrock presents a net of fractures well developed. Current European Water Framework Directive requires an efficient management of both superficial and groundwater resources, which begins with a proper knowledge of the aquifer and accurate recharge estimation. In this study, an assessment of groundwater resources in the Spanish hydrologic district of Galicia Costa, with a geology mainly dominated by granitic and metasedimentaty rocks, was carried out. A water-balance modelling approach was used for estimating recharge rates in nine pilot catchments representatives of both geologic materials. A relation among groundwater recharge and total precipitation according to two different logistic curves was found for granites and metasedimentary rocks, which allows the parameterization of recharge by means of few hydrogeological parameters and its extrapolation to the whole District using GIS tools. Renewable groundwater resources in Galicia-Costa were estimated in 4427 Hm3/year.

  • Average weight of the acorns of Quercus robur L. in Galicia. Influence of physiographic and dasometry factors.

    Vizoso-Arribe, O, Díaz-Maroto, I., Vila-Lameiro, P.


    The weight of the acorn is the key from an ecological point of view, because it influences many aspects of the regeneration strategies of species, including as the dispersion as the emergence and survival of seedlings. In this work is studied the individual weight of the healthy acorns of 40 trees located in 14 stands of Quercus robur L. in Galicia, of two consecutive years 2010 and 2011, analyzing the variability between feet, stands and years. Also the existence of relation is studied between the average weight of the acorns and different factors physiographic and dasometry of the inventory stands. The results show significant differences in the average weight of acorn between trees, stands and years, as well as not existence of a relationship between the average weight of the acorn and physiographic and dasometry factors studied.