Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    Once we have already completed our first five years, with the publication of Number 4, Volume V (2014) of our journal, Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD), we continue our journey with the publication, for the first time, of a double issue, Number 1-2, Volume VI (2015), which includes a total of 17 papers.

    The current time of SJRD is very favourable and its future, I hope, promising. My intention is not, avoid the reality, but I refer to the facts. Having determined this, I only have to conclude this introduction as usually in our journal "It seems, Sancho, that there is not proverb which is not true, because all are maxims drawn from experience itself, the mother of all the sciences" ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra). Come on Pilar, Dolores and Carlos, "Spanish Journal of Rural Development", continues and will continue to build its future.

  • Prologue

    Dr. Eduardo A. Holzapfel

    Criteria for management and design of irrigation systems: a necessity

    The criteria for management and design of irrigation systems still maintain longstanding approximations which only consider the soil conditions, the plant as requirement factor and atmospheric demand. Currently it is required including aspects related to environmental factors that have been mentioned in several studies as negative aspects of the incorporated irrigated areas, the use and type of energy required for pressurized systems, the real efficiency in water use associated with the location and application of water to crops and fruit trees, the irrigation effect with agrochemicals applications and the relationship between production and irrigation. Nowadays, all these factors must be analyzed and establish your interrelations to achieve sustainable agriculture and competitive in the use of resources for productive activity, besides maintaining the productive capacity of natural resources. This, especially in countries where the agriculture has important exporting potential and the water resources are increasingly scarce and there are other sectors of the economy where are demanded such as energy and industry. The competitiveness of water resource and its less availability require of appropriate criteria for use in agriculture.

    In general, the current design criteria of irrigation systems are associated with hydraulic parameters in pressurized irrigation and almost it is not used in superficial irrigation systems because were not considered in modern projects; however with the increasing energy prices these methods get relevance and should be an interesting alternative for irrigation of crops and fruit trees.

    The development of modern criteria for design and management of irrigation systems which consider aspects of efficiency, environment, energy and production are very important to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture.

    Therefore it is necessary to develop criteria and consider their effects adequately, to establish irrigated agriculture of last generation with the support from all existing new technologies such as the use of models, remote sensor, information technologies and monitoring systems of high precision.

  • Impact of land management practices on crop production and household income of farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Akinola A.A., Baruwa, O.I., Ayodele, O.O., Owombo, P.T.

    The paper examines the determinants of the adoption of land management practices and impact on crop production and household income. The study employed a multi stage sampling technique to select 100 respondents who were adopters of inorganic fertilizer, crop rotation and organic manure. Descriptive statistics, budgetary technique and multinomial logit were used to analyze the data collected from respondents. The gross margins for adopters of inorganic fertilizer, crop rotation and organic manure were N88690.6/ha, N55620/ha and N84130/ha, respectively (N is Naira, Nigeria currency; N1 equal $0.0065). Net incomes were N77252.6/ha, N44040/ha and N74506.6/ha. Rate of returns were 2.7, 1.8 and 3.3 for adopters of inorganic fertilizer, crop rotation and organic manure, respectively. The multinomial logit estimates indicated that education level and household size were significant determinants of adoption of fertilizer use while household size was the only determinant of the adoption of crop rotation.

  • Women, rural development and tourism. Case analysis in rural regions of Andalusia

    Flores-Ruiz, D., Pulido-Fernández, J.I., Sánchez-Rivero, M.

    This paper analyzes the role of women in rural tourism, based on an analysis of cases in several rural regions of Andalusia. From a structured survey to owners of tourist accommodation, we performed a comparative analysis of gender based on the ownership and management of these accommodations, thus identifying the role being played by women in this sector. This has allowed us to demonstrate the extent to which women participate in this activity and, therefore, in the economy of rural areas. Therefore, we can conclude that, for rural counties analyzed, as stated in the literature, rural tourism is set to one of the economic activities that most potential can have when promoting the inclusion of women in social and economic life in rural areas, demonstrating the value and reflects the “invisible” work that historically have been playing. However, this activity, like many others made by rural women, seems to be playing, in certain aspects, the traditional role they have played in traditional rural societies, which may represent a significant barrier and limitations for own personal and professional development as well as for rural development in these areas, in general.

  • MGNREGA for inclusive development in India: an analysis

    Nazeer, U.

    The rural development strategies in India made remarkable achievements in the long saga of social and economic welfare of people living in rural India. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is considered as a vibrating force for eradicating rural poverty and unemployment, by way of generating demand for productive labour force in villages. It provides an alternative source of livelihood which will have an impact on reducing migration, alleviating poverty, and making villages selfsustaining through productive assets creation such as road construction, soil and water conservation, etc. For which, it has been considered as the largest anti-poverty programme in India. In this paper, an attempt has been made to comprehensively understand the livelihood strategies though rural employment generation. The researcher used qualitative research methodologies to obtain information pertaining to the study through the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). The study revealed that MGNREGAS generating demand for productive labour force in Indian villages. It provides an alternative source of livelihood which will have an impact on, alleviating poverty, and making villages self-sustaining through productive assets creation under social and physical infrastructure facilities. The study also found that there is a much scope for inclusive development of the social groups. To sum up, it is observed that, the scheme played a vibrant role as a safety net for the unemployed youths in the study area.

  • Small producers of “Nacional” type cocoa in Los Rios province, Ecuador: Socio-educational an economic analysis.

    Morales, F.L., Ferreira, J.A, Carrillo, M.D., Peña, M.M.

    The cultivation of cacao in Ecuador is in the hands of small producers for whom it is the main source of economic support; beside that, it is of great importance for the country's economy, as it generates important job. This research was aimed to study, analyze and discuss the situation of education and socio-economic conditions of small farmers producing Nacional type of cocoa in Los Ríos province, Ecuador. To do so, surveys to producers were done; literature reviews and application of nonparametric statistics helped to understand and interpret the results. It is concluded that small farmers mostly have a low level of education that is directly linked with the agronomic practices and therefore with the yield of the plantation. The low economic return that they get from cocoa, does not allow them to invest in farms (which are more than fifty years old and have been mostly inherited) to improve their economic situation.

  • Development of state employment adjustment mechanism

    Azizbek, I.

    The paper emphasizes that in the environment of innovative economy, development of competitive economy is not the only force which adjusts the employment of population, and further the author drives attention to the fact that in contemporary high-tech economic cooperation, cooperative economy and modernization of employment mechanisms must be considered as important factors.

  • Arrangements of formation of effective employment in Uzbekistan

    Mirzakarimova, M.

    Increasing effective utilization of the man-power resources occupies a special place in achievement of economical efficiency. The increasing quality of man-power resources in Uzbekistan, developing human values reflecting health level knowledge level and longevity of the population is one of the major directed processes of the reform, actualized in our country nowadays. The conception of reorganization of economic structure of Uzbekistan developed that the structural changing in economy is achieved by means of personnel training and changing in employment structure. The employment as profit level of the effective reproduction is reflected on its quality, in turn quality of employment in most cases determines of human resources in society including reproductive “qualification of labor”. Proper territorial arrangement the population functioning on directions of the economy and also the changes of the specialty and responsibility of studying new technology will help to develop new direction in the economy which extended innovation, developing economical depressed areas and formation qualitative abilities of labor among the population. Effective employment provides the ability of reproduction the conditions of socio-economic development of the workers, which are determined by the social situation in this stage of development of society. Effective nature of employment provides social and economic viability of jobs and employment in socially useful activities.

  • Problems of attraction of foreign direct investments in Uzbekistan

    Burkhanov, U., Allaberganova, N., Khudoykulov, K.

    The paper studies problems of creating favorable investment climate in Uzbekistan and contains comparative analysis of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in selected post-soviet countries using documentary analysis method. Despite the recent enhancements in investment climate, FDI in Uzbekistan is still low compared to the other studied countries. The resolving of currency convertibility problems, modernization of infrastructure and further fostering structural reforms are shown as fundamental factors for investment climate improvement.

  • Planning practices in Galicia: How communities compensate the lack of statutory planning using bottom up planning initiatives

    Meijer, M., Díaz-Varela, E., Cardín-Pedrosa, M.

    Planning practices performed by non-governmental actors are often not considered as part the spatial planning domain. Spatial planning is generally associated with governmental activity: coordination that is aimed at a formal regulation of land uses and distribution of public goods. Nevertheless, the influence of other actors, like communities, is becoming increasingly important in planning studies. In this paper we argue that planning practices performed by local communities do deliver an important contribution to the improvement of local living circumstances. From the perspective of dialectics we explore how planning practices performed by communities and governments evolve and continuously shape and reshape the performance of spatial planning. These processes are studied qualitatively in rural Galicia, an Autonomous Region in North-Western Spain. Here we studied how two local communities developed and implemented their own plans for local public services and economic development. These two cases were studied in-depth through interviews with involved community members and field visits. Case study results show that a comprehensive recognition of dialectics is necessary to understand how a spatial organization is shaped. Without this understanding it is difficult to value the contribution of planning practices performed by communities to a better spatial organization.

  • Land consolidation in Norway in an international perspective

    Sky, P.K.

    Although the organisation and objectives of land consolidation varies from country to country, the actual process is surprisingly similar between countries. This means that a comparison between different nations is relevant. Norway is the only state where all land consolidation is dealt with by a special court. Land consolidation can have economic, social, legal, spatial and environmental impacts, but a fundamental principle, not just in Norway, is that no party shall suffer loss as a result of land consolidation. This therefore constitutes an important prerequisite for the final solution. Almost all national land consolidation legislation admits the possibility of compelling unwilling parties to take part in the process.

  • Analysis of a Nelder trial in New Zealand and application to management of Pinus radiata D. Don stands in North-Western Spain

    Sevillano-Marco, E., Fernández-Manso, A., Quintano, C.

    Profitability of plantations, especially when dealing with exotic species, requires knowledge of how wood properties and growth can be manipulated by silvicultural management. The interactive effects of initial stand density and genotype on stiffness, stem form, branching and growth (height and diameter) was examined reviewing forestry expertise with Pinus radiata D. Don, and measurements recorded in 2009 from a sample of 177 radiata pine stems of a Nelder trial in New Zealand. Breeding programs, widespread in New Zealand stands, interact with management practices. The study shows a higher number of defects in an unthinned situation, and scarce influence of genetic provenance over the stem variables analysed compared to the influence of stocking. The stem variables recorded in New Zealand are easily measured in the field and supply useful information as regards profitability of the stands, including quality of the final product. The overall analysis of the interaction between genetics and silviculture enables sketching valuable guidelines for the establishment of the species in Spain, considering quality and form parameters in production objectives, frequently aimed exclusively at maximizing volume yields.

  • Land and work in building of the farmers identity in São Tomé e Príncipe

    Ferreira Neto, J.A., Ferreira, F. M., Aparecida de Moura, R., Cosmo da Silva, N.T.

    This paper analyzes the process of building the identity of “santomenses” farmers under the land reform context, where the access to land might means, in addition to material gains, the achievement of symbolic values, the achieving of a new social identity. At the principle, this contrasts to the earlier condition of mere employee of the state or the subordinate to the farmer owner. From the late 80s, with the end of the nationalization of the fields, began an effective process of agrarian reform with thousands of employees in the rural areas becoming landowners. From this moment, the agrarian structure starts the long process of transformation. The new farmers leave the status of mere sellers of labor power to the independent farmers, having no salary, to become involved with the farm production, specially the products for the family subsistence and for rising family income. This work concludes that the identity of the “santomenses” farmers doesn’t present the usual farmers traits. They do not have the necessary knowledge to farm exploration, neither coming from family agricultural experience nor coming from the scientific research institutes. As a consequence, they do not recognize themselves as farmers, what, as showed by the analysis, may be a disasters, especially in the use of the natural resources under the sustainable approach.

  • Effects of oil pollution on farm income: An empirical evidence from polluted and unpolluted areas of Delta States, Nigeria

    Idumah, F.O., Owombo, P. T.

    Oil pollution caused by oil spill has rendered a number of farm plots less productive in the Niger Delta area, Nigeria. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of oil pollution on the on-income of the farmers. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed for the study. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and multiple linear regression model. Analyses showed that farmers in both land types were in their active ages, experienced and educated. Higher gross margin and net income were accrued to those operating on unpolluted area. The cost incurred was higher among those operating on polluted area. Farmers’ income among those operating on polluted area was positively influenced by farm size while for those operating on unpolluted farm land, farming system and hired labour had positive influence on their income. It therefore becomes imperative to put in place policy framework that will minimise oil spill, redistribute land as well as monitor labour wage in the area.

  • Silvopastoral system in the head of the river basin Chancay (Peru)

    Casasola, E.B.

    The silvopastoral system was analyzed at the head of the river basin Chancay (Peru) which is located in the northeast of the province of Huaral, among 11°11'39’’ south latitude and 76°46'53’’ longitude northeast at an altitude above 3000 m covering an area of 1324670 km2. The study was performed through non-experimental design, using inductive and deductive methodology in evaluating in situ of silvopastoral system, reaching the conclusion from a system that works sustainable, will improve the ecology and ecosystem conservation, therefore, provide both energy and protein livestock and other nutrients and improving population quality of life. The goal is to be a model that can be applied in this territory and livestock nationwide, which is based from the pragmatic dimension which aims to integrate agriculture, ecosystems and the territory under the conditions of high mountain climate tropical varied, located between the Sunni regions, Quechua and Puna places, which is ideal for the growth of a huge variety of plants, crops, animals, etc.

  • Deagrarization in Montenegro

    Sarovic, R., Zivkovic, P., Samardzic, O.

    In Montenegro, as well as in the more developed parts of the world, social and complete rural structures are deeply conditioned by geographic location, level of economic, social relations and specific historical conditions. In the period from 1931 to 2011, Montenegro was three times involved in and emerged from the war conflicts, five times changed its civil status while its population has experienced an almost unique massive spatial and social mobility.

  • Phenology of two tree species of understory in an alluvial forest in Paraná state, Brazil

    De Freitas Milani. J.E., Roderjan, C.V., Braghini, A., Kersten, R.A.

    Phenology refers to the study of periodic phenomena of plants, such as budding, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall. These studies are important for understanding the dynamic of ecosystems. The differences and similarities in species phenological behavior may be related to the position found in the vertical structure of the forest, as well as their relationships with climate and availability of resources. It is considered that the ideal studies of phonological events are long-term, but these being scarce for most research in our academy. The present study aimed to evaluate the phenological behavior of two tree species of an understory for three years, from August 2009 to July 2012, in order to verify the phenology of the Myrrhinium atropurpureum Schott var. octandrum Benth. and Allophylus edulis (A. St-Hil., Cambess. & A. Juss.) Radlk. ex Warm. Both species present an evergreen behavior not losing their leaves from one year to another, therefore the exchanges occur discreetly. For both species the reproductive phenology is coincident, flowering and fruiting in

  • Replacement Model Analysis of Extension Work Seed (EWS) in Nigeria

    Nwawe, C.N., Erumwenbibi, B.O., Dada, M., Utulu, S.N.

    Oil Palm cultivation represents one of the most effective methods of impacting on the society of Nigerians who trade on this commodity, thereby reducing poverty and ensuring food security. This study determined the analysis of optimum replacement age of extension work seed in Nigeria in order to sustain the flow of income accruing to farmers. Secondary data was collected from the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR). Data collected were analysed using profit maximization replacement model. The replacement model results reveal that the optimum age of oil palm replacement was 24th year. For continual flow of benefits to the farmers, the Oil palm plantations should be replanted after every 24th year of economic exploitation. It is economically advisable to use new but identical oil palm seedlings to replace an old oil palm plantation.

  • Quality index drinking water in the system of water supply in rural areas of the Town Centre of Paria – Willcawain – Huaraz

    Aparicio, F.G., Moreno, R.L., Espinoza, F.

    The objective of this research is determining the quality and the risk of drinking water in the supply system in rural areas’ the Town Centre Paria -Willcawain -Huaraz. The type of study is practical explanatory, prospective, transversal, no experimental level. The study area was in the Town Center Paria -Willcawain, the selected sample households were 35 taps and 4 abstractions from natural sources (spiral). The obtains microbiological parameters, parasitological; organoleptic, inorganics and organic chemicals was performed according to International and National standards on environmental quality laboratory at the Universidad Nacional “Santiago Antunez de Mayolo” -Huaraz, to after, calculate and rate the Water Quality Index (ICA) using methods Brown, Dinius, Lander and Deninger, Tyson and House, Swamee and Tyagi, and the Index´s the Canadian Council (CCME -WQI), developed in USA, England, India and Canada respectively. The following results were obtained both in the taps, and deposits; on taps: ICABrown = 75,31, ICADinius = 63,56, ICALawder mnp = 68,12, ICALawder anp = 79,46, ICATyson = 56,90, ICASwamee = 33,28, ICACCME = 65,07; y en las captaciones: ICABrown = 74,26, ICADinius = 62,41, ICALawder mnp = 67,27, ICALawder anp = 78,32, ICATyson = 55,39, ICASwamee = 35,65, ICACCME = 65,07. We conclude that a measured process of deterioration of water quality due to human activities, so it is recommended that water treatment to make it fit for human drinking is evident.