Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    With the publication of Number 4, Volume V (2014) of our journal, Spanish Journal of Rural Development, “terciamos cinco años progresivos desde nuestra génesis”. Relax, it's not my intention to write this introduction using a Spanish although correct spelling, but perhaps today, it can be difficult to understand. One of the meanings of the “terciar” verb is “it is said of one thing or the opportunity to make it”, the “progresivo” adjective means “it progresses or increases in quantity or in perfection” and “génesis” is a Greek word whose meaning is origin, principle or training process. Now everything is clear, only I conclude remains as is customary, a quixotic way: “fortunate one whom heaven has given a piece of bread without obligation thank fits to another but heaven itself” (“The ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha” by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra). Come on Pilar, Dolores and Carlos, “Spanish Journal of Rural Development” continues and will continue to build its future.

     

  • Prologue

    Dr. Alfonso Fernández-Manso

    Aldeas y Agricultura Familiar

    Aunque los procesos de urbanización en el mundo parecen imparables, todavía el 50% de la población vive fuera de las ciudades. Millones de familias de agricultores luchan diariamente para que las semillas, la tierra, el agua y la alimentación no se conviertan sólo en un negocio y, de esta manera, poder garantizar su soberanía alimentaria. Para apoyar esta idea, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas ha declarado el 2014 como Año Internacional de la Agricultura Familiar. De este modo, en este año, se ha pretendido aumentar la visibilidad de la agricultura familiar y explicar a la población mundial su importante labor en la mitigación del hambre y la pobreza, en la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición, en la gestión de los recursos naturales y la protección del medio ambiente y en el logro del desarrollo sostenible, en particular en zonas rurales.

    “Agricultura familiar”, según la FAO, es “una forma de organizar la producción agrícola y selvícola, así como la pesca, el pastoreo y la acuicultura, que es gestionada y dirigida por una familia. La familia, la explotación y la aldea están vinculadas, co-evolucionan y combinan funciones económicas, ambientales, reproductivas, sociales y culturales”. Todavía el 70% de los alimentos que consumimos en el planeta son producidos por la agricultura familiar y el 40% de las familias del mundo viven aún de las actividades agrarias.

    Apoyar la agricultura y ganadería familiar pasa por la defensa de los valores que aporta este modelo productivo. Entre otras características destaca su cercanía a los consumidores dado que están más vinculadas con el territorio y con el desarrollo del medio rural. Además, esta agricultura salvaguarda las tradiciones aldeanas, los usos y costumbres de cada lugar, está más comprometida con el medio ambiente, da mayor protagonismo a la mujer, garantiza la diversidad de producciones agroganaderas y mantiene la actividad en las zonas más desfavorecidas.

    En nuestro país, la agricultura familiar ha estado vinculada en muchas comarcas del noroeste español a la Aldea. Pero este mundo aldeano se muere, está en los últimos estertores de su historia. El modelo económico neoliberal, asumido ya por todo nuestro Planeta, ha tenido como víctima principal a los aldeanos. La competitividad extrema, el utilitarismo, el crecimiento sin límites o la preferencia del tener frente al ser, integran un sistema de valores incompatible con la supervivencia de la Aldea. La «incultura urbana» se ha impuesto definitivamente a una «cultura aldeana» que raramente fue entendida y defendida por la intelectualidad.

    Muy pocos intelectuales fueron capaces de descubrir y comprender los valores y la complejidad de la cultura aldeana; deducir, como afirmaba Ganivet, que “Las inteligencias más humildes pueden desarrollar las ideas más elevadas". Unas ideas que consiguieron crear un complejo sistema biocultural que permitió vivir y convivir durante decenas de generaciones a miles de familias. La Aldea fue la experiencia más larga, extensa y real de la sostenibilidad que conocemos.

    Entre los pensadores que entendieron la verdadera dimensión moral e intelectual de la Aldea me gustaría rescatar a Nicolás Tenorio. En 1914, hace ahora un siglo, publicó su gran obra de antropología social “La Aldea Gallega: Estudio sobre Derecho Consuetudinario y Economía Popular”. Por casualidades del destino, el gaditano Tenorio, fue nombrado Juez de Primera Instancia e Instrucción del Partido Judicial de Viana do Bolo en la provincia de Orense, y desde allí se adentró en la cultura aldeana del noroeste. Nuestro juez convivió y trató con los aldeanos, se trasladó a los lugares para participar en fiestas o faenas agrícolas. Así, al margen de las insidias y presiones del caciquismo local, fue capaz de entender lo remoto, profundo y oculto de la Aldea, de vencer todos los prejuicios y entender su importancia biocultural.

    Tenorio llega a descifrar la compleja organización del espacio y economía aldeana que rezuma sabiduría verdadera. Entiende como allí se maximiza la vida y se minimizan los conflictos humanos. Una cultura que practica la autonomía por costumbre a través del Concejo, comunal y familiar. Tenorio encuentra, finalmente, como en la aldea se conjugan diariamente los verbos más hermosos: gestar, criar, cuidar, labrar, sembrar, habitar, nacer, adaptar y amar. Verbos que sirven para sobreponerse al mundo difícil y sufrido de las montañas. Hoy, cien años después de la publicación del libro de Tenorio  todavía los científicos, ingenieros y administradores siguen sin entender y valorar la importancia de la Aldea y de la agricultura familiar. Esperamos que estudios como los que se publican en esta revista sirvan para cambiar definitivamente esta tendencia.

  • Social networks and stakeholders for the diffusion of innovations and knowledge in rural areas

    Cuevas-Reyes, V., Espejel-García, A., Barrera-Rodríguez, A.I., Sosa-Montes, M.

    The aim of the research was to identify broadcasters’ actors within social networks in the livestock field operating in the states of Sinaloa and Hidalgo to identify elements that allow efficient management of production systems. Statistical sampling was used, the calculation of indicators and identification of actors performed with Ucinet v.6 and Key Player v.2 software. The networks analyzed have low density which affects the low diffusion and adoption of innovations. Key players for the diffusion of innovations are the producers through the tacit knowledge and governmental actors. We conclude that network analysis can be used to identify technological intermediaries to increase the diffusion of innovations in a rural area.
     

  • Climate change, gender and perception: Case of the “Laguna de Yahuarcocha”

    Lugo-Morin, D.R., Caicedo, F., Torres-Cuapa, B., Andrade, J.C., Cruz, F.

    The climatic variability is one of the multiple pressures that face the local communities of the rural territories. In this context, the people of communities of the Dolorosa del Priorato and San Miguel de Yahuarcocha have learned an transmitted referring who have generated a subjective valuation surrounding to their means of life and possible threats. In this logic, the perception has a strategic function in the territory since it reproduces and it explains the socioenvironmental reality. This study allowing to set, which conceives within the framework to identify means of life the people of the lagoon Yahuarcocha under a perspective of gender of the socioenvironmental perception.

  • Quality of sunflower seeds after drying with different temperatures

    Coradi, P.C., Fernandes, C.H.P, Peralta, C.C, Pereira, T.L.L.

    The importance of the drying process has been poorly researched in systems for processing sunflower seeds. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the temperature of the drying air in evaluating the quality physical-chemical of sunflower seeds. The experimentation was developed at the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus of Chapadão do Sul (CPCS). The seeds were dried in a convection oven with forced air ventilation at temperatures of 45, 55, 65 and 75°C. Drying was carried out until the seeds reach the hygroscopic moisture balance. According to this study, the drying air temperatures of 45 and 55°C was less detrimental to the quality of sunflower seeds after drying, however, temperatures of 65 and 75°C affect the physical integrity of the seed and disrupted germination. Furthermore, the drying process does not influence the final oil yield extracted from sunflower seeds. While the technique of extraction using hexane as the solvent showed a better performance, regardless of the drying treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that when sunflower seeds intended for sowing purposes it is not recommended to perform the drying air temperatures above 55°C, resulting in a slower drying, reducing mechanical and physical damage seeds, but when the seeds are intended for oil production, whether for food, feed or for the production of biodiesel, and the goals are performance, it was recommend the use of air temperature of 75°C in drying.

  • Use of urea adsorbed KOH-activated Napier grass biochar for soil conditioning–A step towards biochar tailoring

    Prithvi, S.

    Biochar additions to soils have the potential to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. This work focuses on the hypothesis that a biochar can be tailored in such a way that, it incorporates the essential characteristics of both a commercial fertilizer and a soil conditioner. In  this study, Urea was adsorbed onto KOH-Activated Napier Grass Biochar (KANGB) to produce a nitrogen-enriched char that on one hand improves soil water retention capacity, microbial activity, and provides a potential sink for carbon while on the other hand supplies a  controlled gradual release of urea (by gradual desorption of the urea from the biochar into the soil on addition of water) to the growing plant. Initially, batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the urea uptake capacity of KANGB. The sorption data obtained was fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. A maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 1282 mg.g-1 was obtained using the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies revealed that the urea adsorption can be best described with the pseudo-second order model with intra-particle diffusion being one of the rate limiting steps. All the samples were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The application of urea adsorbed KANGB for soil conditioning showed significant effects in terms of enhanced biomass and number of germinations. Results revealed that KANGB could play an important role in future sustainable-agricultural-systems.

  • Rural community participation and its socioeconomic development through forest management - A case study, Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, India

    Bhadouria, B.S., Mathur, V.B., Mathur, K.

    Keoladeo National Park (KNP) is one of the seven natural world heritage sites in India. In the early 1970s, prompted introduction of Prosopis juliflora(Sw.) DC to the KNP was done. Initially it was introduced in small patches but gradually it got spread over the entire park and become serious threats to the biodiversity of park. Therefore, to remove this invasive plant from KNP, 4490 members of 1435 families from 15 villages actively participated and 230.84 metric ton of wood was removed from the park. A survey was conducted among randomly selected 100 villagers of different age group from 22 to 65 years (X = 43.7 ± 9.58) having family size in the range of 4 to 9 members in their families ( X= 6.04  ± 1.3) from different villages who participated in this programme. It was administered by using semistructured interview questionnaires to elicit opinions from the respondents and attitudes were measured by ten attitude statements and constructed an attitude index. Local communities strongly supported this programme as 91 % (X= 1.09 ± 0.28) of the respondents agreed with the statement that they have benefitted from this programme significantly. Results suggested that this participatory management programme has improved the livelihoods to some extent and provide positive conservation attitudes among communities.

  • Proposal of community actions for knowledge, care and protection of the environment in the Popular Council "Las Nuevas"

    Larrea, K.M., Sánchez, J., Hernández, C.C.


    It is impossible to talk about sustainability without environmental education, which raises the men’s awareness and brings about changes in their minds and the creativity that society needs, directed to the achievement of highest goals economic, social and environmental sectors. The environmental problems constitute a matter of great interest and commitment not only worldwide, but also at local level. The present search was carried out in the Consejo Popular “Las Nuevas” in order to describe the environmental care and protection. For this, 149 inhabitants were selected from the following buildings, 6 and 8, which are located in the main settlement. The sample was not base on probabilities or was intentional in order to diagnose real facts. The biggest problems were lack of basic disinfection conditions and fresh drinking water; the faulty sewerage system operations and the high rate of rats and mosquitoes, such as Culex and Anopheles, responsible for malaria, diseases such as diaries and respiratory diseases associated to the industrial agricultural development due to the abusive usage of pesticides, that damages human health, which are risk factors of diseases such as cancer, being the municipality with the highest death toll due to this situation.

  • Organic coffe. Economic-environmental alternative for Loxichas, Oaxaca, México?

    Álvarez, S.J., Castellanos, J.A., Jiménez, C., Sedano, G.

    This research shows model components and processes of traditional and organic agricultural production, seen in the community of San Bartolomé Loxicha District Pochutla, Oaxaca, in the production of coffee, and where the organic form, has spread giving rise to question whether this alternative is better than the traditional pair. Trying to give reliability elements to promote the transition from traditional option to its organic counterpart, results of research comparing different aspects of these models are giving; including the results of the research the  benefit-cost in coffee production, organic and no organic, conducted in that community, where evidence obtained supports the conclusion that the organic alternative exceeds traditional one on environmental aspect but the economic superiority is mainly supported by subsidies, not by the system.

  • Organic and conventional horticulture: are there significant ergonomic differences?

    Tereso, M. J.A., Abrahão, R. F., Gemma, S.F.B.

    The objective of this research study was to explore possible differences, in terms of ergonomics, between conventional and organic horticulture, from the analysis of real work situations. The Ergonomic Work Analysis method was applied to four horticultural farms in Brazil, from which two of them were devoted to organic production, while the other two were associated to conventional products. The main results showed that the work systems were practically the same, differing in tasks fulfillment frequency and intensity. The workers associated to the organic horticulture experience a sense of job security which impacts favorably in the global balance of work activities. Conventional horticulture is more standardized; exhibiting more stabilized tasks, whereas the organic production was noted to be in constant experimentation. The work was found to be more complex in organic farms, needing more frequent monitoring and control; also, communication and information exchange were noted to be more intense, requiring continuous learning. Despite the fact that the physical workload was similar, there are important differences between the work in organic and conventional horticulture practices related to the fields of cognition and emotional interaction with the work.

  • Authorization for starting of works base on dichotomous keys and their application to the improvement in the safety conditions in agricultural sector

    López, X.M., Barrasa, M., Carreira, X.C.

    The aim of this paper is to propose the application of specific management tools for the management of the human factor in the agricultural sector, addressed to prevent accidents arising from errors in decision-making. This paper presents the results of the introduction during five months of 389 specific work controls based on dichotomous keys. The outcome of this study proves the use of this system greatly reduced risks associated with arbitrary or personal assessments and interpretations in decision-making.

  • Analysis of changes in land use in the basin of river Fluviá (Girona) in the period 1987 -2002 and their effects on the development of ecosystem services

    Soy Massoni, E., Varga, D., Pintó, J.

    This study has applied a methodology that relates land use changes and development of three basic ecosystem services such as: biodiversity, carbon storage and landscape heterogeneity. This analysis was conducted in the basin of the Fluvià river (Girona) for the period between 1987 and 2002. The results show on the one hand the potential of the methodology easily applicable in other areas at any other moment in time, and also its effectiveness in assessing ecosystem services.