Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    I am Sancho, and my profession is long-suffering researcher. My laws are, tell the truth, lavish the humility and avoid the conformity. I run away from sold life, ambition and hypocrisy, and I look for my own glory the narrow path, abandon the pack and be myself, despite all. Is that, inconsistently and thoughtless? ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote of La Mancha -adapted –by "Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra)

    I have decided to start the introduction of number 3 volume V (2014) of our journal, “Spanish Journal of Rural Development”, with the preceding paragraph, after receiving a few days ago the "provisional decision" of the request that was made by my research group to the Call of Excellence of Research Project of the Ministry of Education and Competitiveness, where the evaluator/s, for sure, hiding behind anonymity, justified in the annex of that resolution, entitled "Observations of the Evaluation Committee", that he do not grant of the aforementioned project. From my point of view the observations, or rather, insinuations and/or defamations are unacceptable in a person, who is assumed independent and he acts as a evaluator of research project.

    But unfortunately, this is not something new, and regrettably happens in other areas of our life. So what, we might opt for two alternatives, the first would be "deixalo estar" but this would be simple, and it would be a coward decision, or "give yourself to God with all one's heart, that often tends to rain his mercy in time when are drier hopes" ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote of La Mancha by "Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra). Cheer up Carlos, "Spanish Journal of Rural Development", continues and will continue, forging its future.

  • Prologue

    Dr. Íker Çinbilgel

    In the nature, continuous self replicating and self changing power, ore is an exhaustible resource, an indispensable part of historical, social, political and economic life of humankind.

    Mines and mining' role for reaching today's modern life has a great importance. Mining is one of the biggest industrial branches today as it was yesterday.

    The use of natural sources and the ways of using the sources, change according to development levels and technologies of the countries. In the developed countries, how to use the natural sources ideally and how to make them sustainable is determined and r&d activities and investments are made according to these. Inadequacy in these facilities in undeveloped or underdeveloped countries causes many problems. However, even in developed countries whatever the applied method is during the operation of the mines, some of the negative effects on the environment are inevitable.

    Let's talk about some of the such negative effects:

    Letting out fouling factors to nature like dust-smoke, liquid and solid waste, quake and view spoiling; causes changes in the characteristics of soil, water and air.

    Some of the harmful chemicals which are used in the mining process affect the plants toxically and cause deaths. Mining process which harms the flora and plantation, causes a decrease or corruption in the forests, and also it causes a decrease and wane in the garden products because of its effects on reproduction and fertilization.

    Such chemical causes dying out of critically endangered endemic plant species and also affect the animals toxically via bioaccumulation.

    Just because of the habitat pollution, destruction and fragmentation, the nests and shelters of the animals are destroyed. That’s why becoming infertile during the reproduction period, food competition, stress, mental disorder and deaths can be seen.

    Moreover; as some of the rocks which are rich in endemic species, whet appetite for mining facilities, these areas are specially chosen and such natural places rich in unique and endemic species are destroyed totally. This destruction over the flora and vegetation causes a retrogress in natural succession and even if this flora is left alone it can't change back into today's condition even in decades or hundreds of years.

    As a result of piling up heavy metals and asbestos in the human body, according to type and quantity of these, many health problems can be seen within people such as; cancer, stomach upset, hepatitis, anaemia, renal failure, mental disorders, skin lesion and fragile bone structure.

    Even though there are many legal regulations, because of the inability of these regulations or violating the laws, many tragic work accidents occur and die many mineworker in many countries on the earth.

    Though the local people around these mines were used to busy with agricultural facilities and breeding before, as a result of mining facilities, agriculture and breeding came to a standstill.

    Whereas; economically valuable facilities such as agriculture, breeding and ecotourism are the key players of the rural development. Due to intense mining facilities labour loss can be seen and also in consequence of environmental effects, it both harms the nature and hinders the rural development.

  • Economic evaluation of a breeder herd varying the percentage and weights of weaning, ages at first service, and the sale of replacement cows in Uruguay

    Molina, C. , Rodríguez, J.B.

    We performed an economic evaluation of a breeder herd varying the weaning percentage (60, 70, 80 and 90%), the weaning weights (130 and 150 Kg.), age of the heifers at first service (2 and 3 years), and the sale of low body condition score cows using two simulations. The first included the sale of culled cows (20%) from the productive herd, all of the male calves and the left over of female calves in order to keep original herd size (100). The second simulation included the sale of all of the male claves and a number of cows equal to the number of female calves born. Information of case studies on breeder herd farms was used in the simulations. In conclusion, the economic results obtained are directly related to the weaning percentage and weights, and the age of the heifers at first service. With these assumptions, investment in breeder herds, irrespective of the age of the heifers at first service, would have an economic logic. The investment would not only be to earn more money but, in some situations, to get out of the negative margins of breeding. When the sale of culled cows is included, the economic results are positive in all the proposed alternatives. However, it is more convenient to sell a number of cows equal to the number of female calves born (simulation II).

  • Study of effect of the geometry of the silo on the performance of the spreading and packing

    Cascudo, N., Campa, Y., Sousa, S., Amiama, C.

    Harvesting silage corn requires a perfect coordination between several equipments (forage harvesters, transport vehicles and packers) in order to avoid bottlenecks. In the current work we have studied the process of filling the silo, in order to determine the impact that issues such as the width of the silo, the fill level and the slope of the access ramp have on the performance of the spreading and packing processes. Filling of two silos has been monitored, recording the number of packers, the amount of fodder packed, the geometry of the silo, and bottlenecks in the discharge of transport vehicles. This study enables us to conclude that for a correct management of the process it is necessary to care packers’ coordination, as well as, avoid excessive slopes on the access ramp.

  • Contribution of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and chemism variations of the "La Venta" Creek (Fuenfría Valley) during a rainstorm event

    Anguiano, M.L., Gómez, C., Lacalle, B., Hernández, E.1

    The principal aim of the paper is the quantification and variation in nutrients and the chemical characteristics during a flash flood (storm event) in a small upland sub-basin on granitic substrate. The vegetation is composed of three layers, a tree layer and consists mostly of Valsaín pines (Pinus sylvestris L.), a bush layer and a riverside shrub layer predominant in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid). We assessed the relationship between surface runoff and the ions in the water, and the importance of them in the release of nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorous), being those items triggers eutrophication processes in the water. The results indicate that chemical variability is high in the study area, and indicate the utility of its estimation to define the hydrological response of the catchments.

  • The Special Programme for Food Security (PESA), new way of extension program, in Mexico

    Baca del Moral, J.

    The Special Programme for Food Security, today called Strategic Project for Food Security, whose initials remain PESA, celebrates 10 years in 2012. This is an agreement that has been renewed every year since 2002 between the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA). Currently, it has become a SAGARPA strategy to provide technical assistance and funds to rural production in marginal areas. The PESA began as a special program for "Mexicanize" the FAO proposal to combat food insecurity in these rural areas, with a fund of 15 million pesos (1.5 U.S. million dollars) in 6 states and 12 municipalities. In 2005 the responsibility and operation of the program was transferred to SAGARPA, which concluded the adaptation phase and methodological proposal, arising Agencies for Rural Development (ADR); in 2007 there was the first substantial increase in the allocation of resources by the Chamber of Deputies: 600 million pesos (60 U.S. million dollars) for 3 states: Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas. In 2013 the Chamber of Deputies assigned 3000 million pesos (300 U.S. million dollars) for the 20 states attend PESA, just over 1,000 municipalities and more than 150,000 families. In 2012 we conducted a review of methodological and operational developments and also the benefits to families served by the Strategic Project in the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla, Chiapas and San Luis Potosi, with 10 ADR. The results obtained are described in this work: in a first part, a review of the initial proposals of PESA, then the main developments and achievements that were observed are located, as well as some issues and finally we propose some alternative development to the problems detected.

  • Factors influencing access to productive resources: A case study of Fadama Women’s User Groups (WUGs) in Osun State, Nigeria

    Soetan, R.O., Ayinde, J.O., Koledoye, G.F.

    The study was designed to describe the socio-economic characteristics of Fadama women’s user groups (WUGs) in Osun State and assess factors influencing the resources accessibility among Fadama Women User Groups. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 90 respondents from nine Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the state. Data collected were described using frequency counts and percentages, mean and standard deviation while regression was used to test the relationship between variables. Results showed that majority (58.9%) of the respondents were married with 65% having either primary or secondary education. Fadama facilitators, friends and radio were the major sources of information to the respondents. Majority of the respondents had access to productive resources. However, none of the socio-economic characteristics influence the resources accessibility among the women. The study concludes that women in Fadama User Groups had access to productive resources. It is therefore recommends that Fadama stakeholders should intensify efforts to bring in more women into group with a view to reducing poverty among Nigeria women.

  • Indigenous communities of rural employees in Puebla: contributions to the development by the Mexican State

    Piñón, H., Martínez, E., Sánchez, M., Méndez, J.A., Cuecuecha, A.

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution on the local development of the implementation of projects to agricultural labourers families of Sierra Negra by the Ministry of Social Development through its Program of Agricultural Workers (SEDESOL-PAJA). The study in communities of Sierra Negra was descriptive, cross-sectional and non-experimental, a stratified probability design with a confidence level of 95% for which surveys and depth interviews were applied. The results show that the Weighted Local Development Index (IPDL) calculated for the layer formed by the communities where projects intervened directly with local development perspective, was higher in 3.36 and 40.2 percentage points, compared the other two strata compared (SEDESOL-PAJA intervention with other project and laborers communities not served by SEDESOL-PAJA), leading to the conclusion that there was a significant contribution to local development by the said agency.

  • Statistical model to predict the quality of drinking water in rural areas of "Callejón de Huaylas"

    Aparicio, F.G., Aguilar, G.C.

    Objective: To develop a statistical model to predict the quality of drinking water in rural areas of Peru , in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by waterborne diseases . Material and Methods: The study is applied predictive level, prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental. The study area was in the Town Center of Paria -Willcawain -Ancash, the selected sample were 35 homes, obtaining quantitative variables (physical parameters, chemical and microbiological) was performed according to International Standards (APHA – AWWA – WPCF, 1992) , in the Environmental Quality Laboratory – UNASAM; to quantify the rate of water quality (RWQ) was applied different methods developed in USA, England, India and Canada. To calculate predictive models were used the Econometric Views 7.0 program, which using Newey – West errors (HAC) that selects significant regression variables according to the sample size and the degree of freedom, with the parsimony criterion, which generates the automatic correction. The models have better goodness of fit are: i) Drought Period: ICA1 = 80.990.048(Morbi)-0269 (TD)-0.066(Condu)-0.060 (EC); ii) Rain Period: ICA4 = 84.54-0.042(Morbi)-0.478(TD)-0.0817(Condu)-0.0135 (BH). The conclusion most relevant was that in periods of drought and rain water quality is among polluted.

  • Grouping of associations of municipalities of the province of the Caceres according to their economic activities

    Lagar, D.

    We propose the use of clustering techniques of information or analysis cluster for exploratory analysis of economic activities. It is a multivariate statistical technique which aims to classify cases into relatively homogeneous groups. The cases are 16 associations of municipalities and the 5 territories without grouping of the provincia de Cáceres. The criteria used for this grouping are the sections of activity of people registered by the Social Security. These variables will be the criteria by which associations of municipalities are grouped. We grouped the whole sample into 8 clusters, whose descriptive statistics were analyzed. From this work a global vision of the distribution of economic activities is obtained.

  • Whither Sustainable Rural Development? A critical exploration of remote communities in and around the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Kolawole, O.D.

    Rural areas constitute the critical mass, which drives economic growth and development in many developing countries. They contribute mainly to manpower and the production of industrial raw materials needed in urban centers. Through a combination of critical review of literature, case studies and field observations, this paper explores the state of rural transformation and progress in the Okavango Delta of Botswana. It specifically examines land use and tenure-ship in the area. It also explores the issues surrounding the state of social, physical and institutional infrastructures and how these affect rural development. The analysis shows that the current model of land tenure-ship constitutes a major challenge in human-wildlife interactions. Analysis also indicates that basic rural infrastructures (i.e., social, physical and institutional) are grossly underprovided in most remote communities. While the paper highlights the roles and importance of Community-Based Organizations (CBOs), particularly Community Trusts (CTs) and other administrative structures as well as local knowledge in Sustainable Rural Development (SRD) activities, it concludes that an integrative endogenous-exogenous development process is necessary for enhancing capacitatedsustainable rural infrastructures and pro-poor policy implementations, which are in turn meant to drive rural entrepreneurship/employment and local development.

  • Management and monitoring of mangroves ecosystems in the South Cost of Camagüey: Cayo Caguama, N. P. Jardines de la Reina and Fauna Refuge Macurije-Santa María

    Godínez, D., Sánchez de Céspedes, D., Abad, G., Edgar, D.

    Within the actions to the project Archipelagos South, a monitoring of the mangrove ecosystem was made in Caguama Key, National Park Jardines de la Reina and areas to Wildlife refuge Macurije-Santa Maria. A five plots of 100 m2 following the methodology of (Menéndez et al., 2003; 2006) twice a year in each of the areas were realized. Parameters as well as: canopy height, basal area, height of the root, regeneration, flowering, phytophagous attacks and fruiting were evaluated. The mangroves were classified as stunted monotypic mangrove Avicennia germinans, under mixed Mangrove, Mangrove mixed medium and high. Four species were represented: Avicennia germinans L. var. germinans (black mangrove) Conocarpus erectus L. (yana), Rhizophora mangle L (red mangrove) and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn (patabán). Conservation of the mangrove ecosystem is more favorable in the Refugio de Fauna Macurije-Santa Maria than Caguama.