Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    The introduction of the previous issue of “Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)” began with the following expression “with this issue of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)" we inaugurate the volume V, 2014 of our journal”. Therefore, having clarified the meaning of the verb "inaugurate", solemnly and with appropriate humility, I continue writing the introduction of number 2 of that volume.

    In “El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha” by Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, we can read, “he (Sancho) felt the wish to do what no one could do for him". Maybe we could add “without comments”, facing a sentence of this importance. Come on Carlos, there will be time to talk about other questions. “Spanish Journal of Rural Development” continues and will continue, forging its future.
     

  • Prologue

    Dra. María Cristina Chávez Mejía

    Los nuevos y distintos acercamientos para entender procesos sociales y ambientales y proponer alternativas viables de desarrollo se caracterizan por abordar el tema de interés desde una perspectiva integral. El enfoque del desarrollo territorial retoma esta perspectiva por lo que una de sus bases es el aprovechamiento sustentable de los recursos naturales locales y la participación activa de sus pobladores como gestores del desarrollo, esto es, gestores de un desarrollo endógeno.

    Por ello, cada vez se apuesta por valorar o revalorar la vida comunitaria en cuya dinámica cotidiana existe la apropiación simbólica y material del medio para construir un territorio, y a partir de ello analizar y proponer proyectos de desarrollo desde las bases. Así, las actividades primarias no son solo una fuente de alimentos, sino por medio de valoración y revaloración de la vida cotidiana de comunidades locales como su identidad, patrimonio, recursos naturales, y son parte de la propuesta de desarrollo endógeno para su buen vivir. Por ello, se propone agregar valor a su actividad primaria, por medio de agregar valor a sus productos, a sus artesanías, ambiente, entre otros; así surge la propuesta de la creación de agroindustrias familiares y prestación de servicios por comunidades rurales.

    Sin duda, los usos y manejos locales del ambiente se basan en conocimientos tradicionales, como una de las maneras de apropiación del entorno, como toponimias y cartografías para la mejor comprensión de procesos de relación sociedad-ambiente. Así nombrar y mostrar un territorio por la gente local, representa también como el sentido de identidad y pertenencia se construye, elementos de su vida diaria individual y comunitaria revalorados en estos tiempos como parte de la riqueza cultural. Si bien se reconoce el valor del conocimiento tradicional, también se reconoce que en algunos casos, es necesario tanto éste como del conocimiento científico para la mejor solución de problemas técnicos para llevar a cabo de mejor manera las actividades primarias.

    El uso y manejo local del ambiente, son el resultado de interacción con otras sociedades, de la cual surgen diferentes intereses, como el participar en mercados regionales o internacionales, cambios que sin duda tienen implicaciones ambientales, como reemplazo de una diversidad biológica por una introducida, con fines de ganancia económica. Así también, la dinámica del mundo globalizado, brinda oportunidades para el uso de nueva tecnología que influye en el crecimiento y mejora de las actividades agropecuarias.

    Cambio es parte de la dinámica de la vida rural, para por una parte, satisfacer la demanda de productos y servicios, y por otra, para proveerlos de manera que no solo se logre el crecimiento económico, sino el desarrollo sustentable. Así, uno de los retos de los actores a diferentes niveles para la participación de comunidades tradicionales o indígenas es conservar sus recursos naturales y culturales, a la vez que les permita su desarrollo endógeno.

    Esta dinámica de relaciones locales y globales genera impactos tanto socioeconómicos y ambientales que influyen en la puesta en marcha de proyectos de desarrollo, por lo que es realmente necesaria la participación real de cada uno de los actores involucrados. Participación conjunta tanto de actores locales, agentes gubernamentales y no gubernamentales de desarrollo, como de estudiosos de procesos socioeconómicos, culturales y ambientales; en este último ámbito, los estudios puntuales sobre los recursos naturales como el potencial de especies vegetales para capturar carbono son necesarios, para entonces proponer opciones de su buen uso y manejo para de alguna manera contribuir a la existencia de procesos ecológicos que brinden servicios ambientales, como aire y agua de buena calidad.

    Así, este número de la revista presenta temas contemporáneos de relevancia para el desarrollo local, trabajos que abordan oportunidades de desarrollo en diferentes partes del mundo, así como estudios puntuales sobre medio ambiente y procesos socioeconómicos y culturales en el medio rural.

     

  • Regional System of Innovation and Territorial Rural Development; small dairy producers of the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Espejel-García, A., Cuevas-Reyes, V., Muñoz-Rodríguez, M., Barrera-Rodríguez, A., Cervantes-Escoto, F., Sosa-Montes, M.

    The objective of this research was to analyze the innovation system in bovine milk chain Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo (México), with the aim of identifying factors that limit or promote management innovation that impacts the development of livestock units in the region. Using a simple random sampling the number of producers was calculated to be surveyed, analyzed the use of innovation, and using the methodology of innovation networks the flow of information and knowledge between the actors was determined, as well as, the articulation of innovation regional system (IRS). Identifying actors performed with UCINET 6 and Key Player 2. The State Dairy Commission (SDC) proved to be the key player in the regional innovation system. Innovations greater adoption were, artificial insemination, milking and integration of producers to collection centers, which are supported in fodder production with wastewater and aspects related to genetic improvement and animal reproduction, which has impacted on the economic development of the territory, articulated through increased productivity of the production system, with government support of the SDC.
     

  • Biomass and carbon stock potential of Fraxinus floribunda Wall. (Ash tree) plantation for mitigating climate change in Kashmir Valley

    Wani, N.R., Qaisar, K.N.

    Trees are recognized as important components of carbon cycle have gained importance owing to their potential to sequester carbon. Reviving tree cover and finding low cost methods to sequester carbon is emerging as a major international policy goal. The objective of the study was to estimate growth, biomass production, carbon stock and carbon dioxide mitigation potential of 19-year old Fraxinus floribunda Wall. plantation under different diameter classes. The DBH of trees varied from 7.74 to 23.50 cm, height from 4.16 to 10.40 m, basal area between 0.004 to 0.043 m2 and volume between 0.007 to 0.135 m3 between 2009 and 2010.The average dry stem biomass of the trees at the site varied between 4.91 to 90.45 kg, branch dry biomass (1.63 to 29.44 kg), leaf dry biomass (0.39 to7.14 kg), total above ground dry biomass (6.93 to127.03 kg), root dry biomass from 1.73 to 31.77 kg and total biomass (above + below ground) from 8.66 to 158.80 kg. The stem carbon varied from 12.12 to 39.05 kg, branch carbon (0.69 to 12.48 kg), leaf carbon (0.14 to 2.62 kg), root carbon (0.74 to 13.66 kg) and total carbon from 3.69 to 67.81 kg. The stem carbon dioxide mitigation potential varied from 7.75 to 142.92 kg, branch (2.52 to 45.67 kg), leaf (0.51 to 9.58 kg), root (2.70 to 49.99 kg) and total carbon dioxide mitigation from 13.48 to 248.16 kg between 2009 and 2010. Thus it can be concluded that among all the tree components, stem was found to be the main contributor towards the production of biomass, carbon stock and carbon dioxide mitigation potential followed by root, branch and leaves under all the diameter classes.

  • Social and environmental mapping of the Jacuipe River Basin Territory: Participation in the environment

    Da Cunha, J.U.C.P., De Alencar, C.M.M.

    This article shows the process of development of the social and environmental mapping of the Jacuipe River Basin Territory. It is a rural territory, ingrown at the Caatinga Biome and located at the Bahia semi-arid, that occurred in 2012. This process considers the participatory planning as one of the methodological pathways that qualifies the environmental planning through the political participation on the management of a draw-well that is common to all, regardless of the work, life, nature, rural world or biologic diversity. This understanding enables the intersection between the natural, human and social as a theory and empiric unity in which the local scales synthesizes multiple scales to be considered as a direction e/or criteria for the conservation of biodiversity and application of the environmental planning and territorial development. Methodologically, we searched to configure a social and environmental field, contextualize the rural world and value the territorialities expressed in each of the social subjects of the territory being studied, we also looked for idealizing the ecologic subject that puts in evidence the process of transformation of the relations between the society and nature. The social cartography produced in a participatory observation, was the theory-methodology resource adopted to contextualize the territorial dynamic and give subsides to gather information and build up the field observation maps of the land use and vegetal coverage, that was the main instrument featured in the work. The social and environmental mapping highlights that the production and exploitation of the natural resources and the economic repercussion of this territory may not be related only to castle rising, but has a multi-dimension. It concludes that there is a need to give a greater emphasis to the debate on land use, an element that, being the in the core of the agricultural issue, creates a position and an environment that requires a dialectic view between economic growth and material and social reproduction of life.

  • Prevalence of anaplasmosis in bovine in the central area of the Ecuadorian Coast

    Ariel, E., Cevallos, O., Villareal, P., Zambrano, S., Nieto, H., Carranza, M., Pinargote, E.

    The objective of current work was determining the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle of two zones rural-urban fringe of the locality of Quevedo, Los Rios province, Ecuador. For this, were selected four cattle farms and the slaughterhouse of the Company Municipal of the city of Quevedo (CEMQ). To determine the analytical sensitivity of the technique of Nested PCR, Kruskal-Wallis was used, which determined that the best treatment was TmS at 54 °C with a concentration of 10.7 µg/µL of bacterial DNA. A total of 134 animals between males and females were analyzed by Nested PCR, of which an average of 87.5 % of the samples were positive for A. marginale. According to the X2 analysis on the presence or absence of disease, determined that this was independent of age, sex, race and origin of cattle, respectively. Subsequent to the results obtained, a high prevalence enzootic is observed at these sites, therefore shows that cattle are naturally infected with A. marginale not knowing the mechanism of slaughterhouse animals. We propose that this work can be considered as a platform for future studies related on epidemiology, implementation of prevention programs, eradication and control the movement of cattle in this country zone.

  • Economic activities in indigenous lands in the Brazilian Amazon: Prospects and contradictions in rural development

    Silva, N.T., Ferreira, J.A., Roseni, A.

    This paper is a result of a master’s dissertation that aimed to analyse the scenario of indigenous communities, verifying the interaction between the mechanisms of stability and change triggered in the current development process. It was possible to map different ethnic groups which are highlighted on this paper, the Tenharim and the Jiahui of Amazon, the Cinta Larga of Rondônia, which provided a kind of mapping of indigenous issues in the Amazon, emphasizing the economic processes. The methodology chosen was the case study, and the following data collection instruments were used: i) Notes taking during the course "Economic Activities in Indigenous Lands", ii) interviews with participants of the same course. The results obtained indicate that there is an interaction between the evolution of historic configurations and the State’s influence in the different reality determinations, specifying that the development process is multidirectional, but, above all, it indicates the people creative capability that give life and attitude to them territories.

  • Information and communication technologies as drivers of growth: experience from selected small scale businesses in rural southwest Nigeria

    Oluwatayo, I.B

    The pervasiveness of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) from cell phones to low cost videos, digital cameras, television, internet and laptops to mention just a few has transformed the lives of many especially the rural folks. Recent advances in ICTs have resulted in expanding existing jobs and creating new opportunities some of which were unimaginable only a few decades ago. The result has been significant worldwide and especially in developing countries like Nigeria where over three-quarter of her inhabitants rely on small-scale non-farm businesses and agriculture as means of livelihood. ICTs have therefore become an indispensable tool in fighting poverty and actualizing pro-poor growth. The result presented here relied on data collected from a random sample of 350 small-scale business owners in Southwest Nigeria. Analysis of respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics revealed average age to be 44 years. Respondents’ distribution by educational status showed that only about one-quarter were educated up to tertiary level with about 43% having no formal education. Occupational distribution of respondents showed farming as the highest employer of labour providing livelihood for over 67% of those interviewed. Analysis of available ICTs facilities revealed mobile phones, internet, television, radio, video cameras, digital cameras and cam-coders as the most widely used. Results further indicated cost reduction, ease of marketing and a quantum leap in the incomes of small-scale business owners as outcomes of ICTs penetration in the study area. Ranking of livelihood activities showed that small-scale businesses like trading, carpentry, brick-laying, barbing/hair-dressing, okada riding, carhiring, video clubbing, and vulcanizing as the most patronized. It is therefore suggested that effort should be intensified at building capacity of respondents through education. This is because education enhances adoption of new technologies and earning potentials of people. Improvement in the existing state of infrastructures should be made a policy priority to enhance accessibility to and affordability of ICTs.

     

  • Socio-economic impact of rural development projects in Iran

    Ebrahimi, M.S., Amini, A.M., Hanif, M.

    A pesar del aumento de la urbanización y la disminución de la población en las zonas rurales, muchos asentamientos rurales siguen siendo dinámicos y comprenden una parte considerable de la población de los países en desarrollo como Irán. La funcionalidad de las zonas rurales en el mantenimiento de la población y las ocupaciones rurales dependen de la creación de una infraestructura de prestación de servicios. Despite the increase in urbanization and decline in population in rural areas, many rural settlements are still dynamic and comprise a sizable portion of the population of developing countries such as Iran. The functionality of rural areas in maintaining population and rural occupations depends upon the production of an infrastructure to provide services. This requires an organized planning and development process. One tool to provide suitable conditions in rural areas is a Rural Master Plan (RMP) that provides spatial-physical organization. This study analyzed the socio-economic impact of Rural Development Projects (RDP) in Iran. The methodology was descriptive and analytical. The data was based on field studies and a questionnaire filled out by respondents from sample villages. The target research population was the rural residents from the region surrounding the Amol County. The number participants responding to the questionnaires was determined using the Cochran formula (n = 260) and its reliability was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.92) after conducting a pilot study. The results showed that a the RDP were successful in the improvement desire for staying in the village, the improvement rising land prices, participation status in rural construction projects, the improvement of access to agricultural inputs and markets for agricultural products and the improvement of foundation for measures for attract the participation villagers.

  • Application of cluster analysis and correlation to the geochemical behavior of trace elements and their impact in the water quality of Madrid´s detritic aquifer (Spain)

    Anguiano, M.L., Gómez, C., López, F., Hernández, E.

    The scope of this work is the performing of a multivariant analysis of trace and minority elements from sixteen water samples recollected in wells of Terciary Detritic of Madrid. The purpose of this statistical approach was to found a possible relation between the various trace elements analyzed in groundwater and its presence in the minerals that compound detrital materials igneous and metamorphic origin that make up the aquifer. In this sense, the result of factor analysis shows a strong correlation between the B with I-Cu-Sr-Ti-V-Sb. Also the Sb with Sr-Sn-I, As with Va, Se with Y-Zr, Cu with Y-Sb-I Br and Cr with Ba-Cd. These relationships are responding to the geochemical behavior existence in the aquifer. Cluster analysis confirmed in most instances the relationship between various trace elements. It also characterized the toxic risk of these trace elements as a preventive measure in relation to the new Royal Decree 140/2003 concerning the maximum levels allowed in drinking water.

  • Abattoir agribusiness: the case of beef processing and marketing for rural development in Delta State, Nigeria

    Akporhuarho, P.O., Achoja, F.O.

    This paper analyzes the evaluation of abattoir agribusiness in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from randomly selected beef processors and marketers in 2010. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and profit function. Results of the study revealed that male folks accounting for about 72.5% of the total operators are more involved in abattoir business and fall within the age range of 36-55 years, 57.5% of whom are old in the business with about 30% having spent about 610 years in the business. Also, about 92.5% of the operators had one form of formal education or the other and had a family size between 6 and 10. An average abattoir operator makes an average profit of about N 8112.50 monthly. Although profitable, abattoir business is faced with some constraints such as transportation, inadequate finance, poor infrastructure and basic amenities, poor sanitation, inadequate number of abattoirs, lack of government support, etc. Government therefore needs to be more sensitive to abattoir business in the state by providing meat inspection services, basic amenities such as good roads, good water supply and electricity, build more abattoirs and provide credit for the operators as this will improve the profitability of the business in the study area.