Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    "No external freedom will give us more than in the exact extent that we had known, at any particular time, develop our inner freedom" (Mahatma Gandhi). In this way, "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)", has been able to mature gradually, their destiny. The mere fact be writing the introduction to the third issue of the fourth volume, year 2013, shows once again, that our "project" is perpetual and , not only that, but it perpetuates its vocation, because we believe in our "dream" so that “the possibility of realizing a dream is what makes life interesting” (Paulo Coelho). Our new website, with more than a hundred visitors a day, is just a small sample of the progress of SJRD every day. And as each person is responsible for their own history, there is a nuance that never fail in these few lines -" He (Sancho) felt a desire to do what no one could do for him"-("The ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra )

  • Prologue

    Gregor Bozic y Ursa Vilhar

    According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Report (2005) worldwide approximately 60% of the ecosystem services are being degraded or used unsustainably, including fresh water, capture fisheries, air and water purification, and the regulation of regional and local climate, natural hazards, and pest. The full costs of the loss and degradation of these ecosystem services are difficult to measure, but the available evidence demonstrates that they are substantial and growing. These trade-offs often shift the costs of degradation from one group of people to another or defer costs to future generations.

    The information available to assess the consequences of changes in ecosystem services for human well-being is relatively limited. Many ecosystem services have not been monitored and it is also difficult to estimate the relative influence of changes in ecosystem services in relation to other social, cultural, and economic factors that also affect human well-being (ibid.).

    Recent years have seen increasing focus on many environmental services provided by urban forests, such as flood regulation, moderation of the urban climate and air pollution reduction. It is important to recognize that water flow regulation by forest ecosystems in local catchments may provide substantial economic values to human societies and activities downstream. Forests are identified as key landscape elements for the provision of pristine surface and groundwater resources. Their protective function from water related hazards is of particular importance in those urbanized areas, where a great share of water sources (mainly for drinking use) comes from forested water catchments and drainage basins.

    The expectation of the general public, particularly among urban dwellers, is that forests are managed primarily to deliver social and environmental benefits, even though forests cannot attain their full wood production potentials. As growing conditions in urban areas are generally far from optimal for trees and other vegetation, also their reactions towards air, soil and water pollution differs from that from the natural conditions. Therefore, urban forests need to be managed highly participatory, aiming to become multifunctional and multidisciplinary, involving experts from natural as well as social sciences and targeted at developing partnerships between all stakeholders.

    In order to asses ecosystem services of urban forests and urban plantations in Lombardy (Italy) and Slovenia a monitoring network is being established in the frame of EMoNFUr project LIFE+ 10/ENV/IT/000399. A collaborative effort between scientists engaged with environmental aspects of urban forests and those working on socio-cultural impacts of urban forests to provide indicators and/or thresholds to be included by policy makers in local, national or international regulations about Green infrastructure and urban forests is being addressed by COST Action FP1204 GreenInUrbs: Green infrastructure approach: linking environmental with social aspects in studying and managing urban forests. To address the lack of information about the water flow regulation capacity in urban forests, special attention is given to international harmonization of indicators as well as development of guidelines for planners and managers on how to implement systematically monitoring of water flow regulation capacity in urban forests. This would enable stakeholders to estimate the trade-offs between water-related urban forest ecosystem services and other ecosystem services such as urbanization and wood production.

  • Collective action and social capital of the piloncillo producers in the Huasteca Potosina, México

    Baca del Moral, J., Crispín Fuentes, L.

    In the Mexican rural sector there is a problem that is evident through the following indicators: conformism; inertia with respect to progress; gradual weakening of local institutions; isolation of the innovation process; individualism; patronage assistance; disorganization and undemocratic leadership. While the global economic development demands a critical awareness, mobilization and peasant organization, the horizontal interaction with other sectors of development, the exercise of autonomy and democracy. These qualities are not easy to hold and consolidate by peasant groups, by the historical distrust of the warlordism and corruption that has been generated in this type of organizations. The Organization must comply with the function of making that efficiently use all available resources for a group of people. The integration of a rural organization must respond to felt needs, achieve recognizable success in the short term, fit into the local culture and be easy to operate and understand. In this way the principles of co-responsibility, common good are strengthened and social capital. This work analyzed the organizational process of the integrator of Piloncillo the Huasteca Potosina, Sociedad Anónima de Capital Variable; supported by the Secretariat of Social Development (SEDESOL) and implemented by the Agency for Local Development (ADL). The study was conducted with a focus on territorial rural development in order to meet the development of the organizational experience, the context in which took place, seeking to deepen the analysis with the approach of the Local agri-food system (SIAL) for their degree of self-management with regard to NGOs and Government institutions, as well as the appropriation of its organizational development. With its organisation and development plan the piloncilleros have been innovated its production system in every way, obtaining various quality and direct sale products.

  • The impacts of the drying Lake Chad on rural dwellers of Africa

    Oruonye, E.D.

    The unique location of Lake Chad in the Sudan-Sahel region of Africa made it more vulnerable to climate change and environmental externalities resulting from both natural and anthropogenic driving factors. The Lake Chad region is a fragile area with high climate variability and extremes of weather. As this inland water is used for domestic and agricultural purposes, salt mining, as well as transportation by Nigerians, Nigeriens, Chadians and Cameroonians, it is an area of trans-boundary water conflicts. This paper examines the impacts of the drying Lake Chad on fishery resources and livelihood activities in the region. Data from field studies, structured interview and secondary sources show that fish catches and livelihood activities have declined tremendously in recent times due to several factors including overexploitation and increasing demands on the aquatic resources. Findings from the study show that droughty periods have resulted in the reduction of open lake water surface from about 25000 km2 in 1973 to less than 2000 km2 in the 1990s. This has led to the diminishing aquatic and other resources in the area as well as potentially major challenge to social and economic development of the region. Although the importance of fisheries and irrigation in the region are well known, mechanism for mitigating and/or responding to the effects of the drying lake is not in place. A call is made in this paper to support the earlier advocate by scholars for inter-basin water transfer from the Congo Basin to the Chad Basin and the construction of canals on the Lake Chad to boost fishing activities and transportation.

  • Social capital and resource conservation in “Community Based Haor Resource Management (CBHRM) Project”: A Case from Bangladesh

    Chowdhury, I.A., Zakaria, A.F.M., Islam, M.N., Akter, S.

    Social capital is a feature of social organizations that improves the efficiency of the society and facilitates collective action. Community Based Haor Resource Management (CBHRM) consists of those traits of social capital. In the study it has been tried to measure the nature of social capital and its impact on haor resource conservation process. Descriptive and analytical designs have been followed in the study. Data were collected by social survey and focused group discussion methods. Through the different statistical method like weighted mean index, problem confrontation index and multiple regression models were used to analyze the data. It is found that both bonding and linking social capital are low, where linking capital is much low than the bonding capital. Resource conservation as well as resource availability is increased for the practice of resource management, however poor people cannot access in legal way due to the lacking of linking capital. Rural power structure is very much hampered for formation of social capital in this area.

  • Agriculture transformation and rural development in Pakistan: A time series analysis

    Ullah, I.

    The present study has empirically analyzed the impact of agriculture transformation on rural development with relevance to Pakistan. This study provides analytical biases to the conventional theory of agriculture transformation and rural development, develops their indices and later implements the time series tools for empirical investigation of the phenomenon. We use time series data for the period 1981-2001 and employ cointegration technique and error correction model (ECM) approach. The empirical finding reveals that agriculture transformation has positive and significant impact rural development, which implies that agriculture sector development is a major component for rural life and rural areas can attain higher living standards if agriculture sector is transformed.

  • Decisive analysis of risks in agriculture: implications for agricultural extension for sustainable management

    Saleem A., Muhammad I., Ghazanfar, A.K.

    In the global world agriculture and dominates as significant sector but also declared as risky business indeed. Various agricultural risks exist worldwide which are hindering the productivity of agriculture globally. To develop sustained farming elimination of these risks such as production, marketing, legal, human and catastrophic risks are necessary. For that purpose many strategies were introduced by the several researchers. These strategies were replaced by many more time by time. Some of them faced failure and some remained bit successful. The major concerns regarding failure of strategies were their poor viability and most of them were on progressive farmer level. Different reason evolved in different strategies. Mostly focus was given to linear and economic based approaches to the developed farmers. Due to which farmers remained unaware of potential impacts of risks and farmers are unknown of resources depletion in the future, therefore still traditional farming evolved with farming risks is in practice. On these basis farmers are vulnerable to risks and uncertainties resultantly poverty persists. In this situation worldwide special emphasis to sustainable and precision agriculture through resources conservation is needed. Non-farm income resources generation support may also be helpful in reducing financial risks. Implementation of holistic approaches for risk management may make the journey easy toward long term benefits from farming.

  • Nutritional analysis of natural oak forests in Galicia in relation to soil properties

    Díaz-Maroto, I.J., Vila-Lameiro, P., Vizoso-Arribe, O

    In this study, we analyzed different edaphic and nutritional factors that affect soil conservation in natural forest stands dominated by Quercus robur L. in Galicia (NW Spain). Oak forests in the northwest Iberian Peninsula represent climax communities with a high diversity of vascular plants. Oak occurs in mixed stands, known as "fragas”, along with other trees species such as Castanea sativa Mill., Betula alba L., Corylus avellana L.,... Other oaks that hybridize easily may also be present: Q. petraea Matts. and Q. pyrenaica Willd. These forests are particularly vulnerable as a result of the human pressure to which they are subjected. Poor soil conditions and nutrient removal as a result of fire or the application of short rotations may limit nutrition and thus affect the conservation of these forests. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the types of soil on which the stands are located and their main properties. We also assessed nutritional status from the results of foliar analyses. Most of the soils on which the stands are established are acidic and rich in organic matter. The foliar analyses showed that the main nutritional limitation for the oaks was generally the low concentration of macronutrients, although in some cases there were also insufficient levels of nitrogen. These deficiencies may to be related to the low availability of these nutrients in the soil. Such limitations may reduce the potential for their conservation, which should be taken into account in future silvicultural treatments aimed at conservation.

  • Productivity change analysis of cow’s milk in Uzbekistan

    Abruev, A., Murtazaev, O.

    Livestock breeding and raising is considered to be developed according to permanent increasing of animals’ productivity. Cow’s milk productivity state and its effective usage are studied in opportunities in cattle raising agriculture of Uzbekistan. We analyzed total milk dynamics with the help of factoring analysis. For calculating this, we used statistics data of SCSUz (2012) of cattle heads and their productivity indices of all production systems since 1997. Average yield was 1871.4 liters in 2012/13 and it is increased 122.5% as compared with 1997/98. During 1997-2012, total milk production in Uzbekistan has been increased at the expense of cows’ head average annual exceeding as 80.2% and partially only increased 34.4% at the expense of cow’s milk productivity. As results showed, actually this increase has been changed at the expense of increasing of cow’s amount but not because of milk productivity. Developing pedigree signs of cattle, well organizing of progressive veterinary services, supplying of modern buildings, cutting-gathering techniques in keeping cows have a positive effect in development of field. In addition, via taking state control of quality services and activity of agro service branches’ will productivity changed positively