Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    SJRD Editor

    A simple work like which I'm doing right now, write the introduction to this issue of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)", in this case, it is not routine, because it is not a number else of SJRD, it collects the papers presented in the II Workshop "Research about Engineering for Rural Development". As say one verse of a famous song by Joan Manuel Serrat:

    Blow by blow, verse by verse...
    The poet died far from home
    and is covered by dust from a neighbouring country.
    When he walked away, someone saw him cry.
    "Traveller, there is no path, the path is made by walking ..."


    Certainly, "the path is made by walking...", because the articles included in this special issue show the research work which is being carried out in our Department of Agroforestry Engineering, after 16 years of existence. But, now, "upon looking back is seem the path that we should go back to step on".

    We have earned a very dignified position in our university, although many demands have not always been understood properly, but if all row in the same direction and do it altruistically, we will realize that our department is able to harbour different positions, although all legitimate. Oh envy, root of infinite evils and woodworm of virtues! ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).
     

  • Prologue

    Ramón Velo Sabín

    La realización del II Workshop: Investigación en Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Rural obedece al interés y a la necesidad de difusión de la investigación que se está llevando a cabo por los estudiantes matriculados en el Programa de Doctorado denominado Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Rural adscrito al Departamento de Ingeniería Agroforestal de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.

    En esta nueva edición de las jornadas se presentaron 15 trabajos encuadrados en las áreas de conocimiento de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Proyectos de Ingeniería e Ingeniería Cartográfica, Geodésica y Fotogrametría que muestran la vitalidad y al mismo tiempo la gran diversidad de los ámbitos de investigación del Programa de Doctorado. Dichos trabajos están enmarcados en los siguientes grupos de investigación: Diseño de Productos y Procesos, Energía y Mecanización Agroforestal, Gestión Forestal Sostenible, Modelización Forestal e Industrias Forestales, Proyectos y Planificación y USCAN3D Documentación.

    En el Programa de Doctorado (con Mención hacia la Excelencia 2011-2014, concedida por el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte) en estos tres últimos años se han leído 16 tesis doctorales y en este curso están matriculados 54 alumnos. La nueva regulación de las enseñanzas oficiales de Doctorado, deseamos que proporcione un impulso definitivo para alcanzar un modelo más cercano a las necesidades de la sociedad y de las empresas y que la puesta en marcha de las Escuelas de Doctorado favorezca y contribuya a una mayor colaboración exterior e internacionalización.

    Uno de los retos pendientes de estas enseñanzas es que proporcionen una mayor empleabilidad como consecuencia de que las empresas y las administraciones sepan valorar en su justa medida las competencias y destrezas que alcanzan en su formación estos titulados, como son desenvolverse en contextos en los que hay poca información específica, encontrar las preguntas claves que hay que responder para resolver un problema complejo, diseñar y emprender proyectos innovadores en su ámbito de conocimiento, trabajar tanto en equipo como de manera autónoma, integrar conocimientos, enfrentarse a la complejidad o formular juicios con información limitada.

    En los momentos actuales cada vez es más necesario dejar patente que la investigación en ingeniería, debe ser uno de los pilares básicos en que se debe apoyar cualquier sociedad para afrontar de forma competitiva los retos que se le presentan. Es necesario conseguir que se vea en la universidad una referencia en innovación y desarrollo pero también los grupos de investigación debemos ser capaces de convencer de nuestras fortalezas y acercarnos más al tejido empresarial. En esta dirección encaminamos nuestros esfuerzos.

    Para finalizar debo agradecer la acogida que hemos tenido en la revista Spanish Journal of Rural Development así como su apoyo y ayuda dispensada. También quiero extender este agradecimiento a la Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU) por la colaboración para hacer posible la difusión de la investigación y animarla a seguir extendiendo y organizando actividades científicas.


  • Factors which affect involuntary milkings and their influence in the daily work in automatic milking systems

    Castro, A., Pereira, J.M.

    In automatic milking systems the farmers set an alarm or warning for delay whether a cow exceeded the milking interval. These milkings delayed are one of the main problems in dairy farms with AMS. The objective of this study was on one hand to determine the time spent on the labour to go find and fetching cows delayed. On the other know the rate of involuntary milking in dairy farms with automatic milking system. Finally identify and assess the main causes of these delays. 10 visits were realized in 6 dairy farms with automatic milking in Galicia (NW Spain). In each of them were sought those cows which had a delayed alarm in their next milking and noting the possible causes. Furthermore, the level of lameness was scored in each cow. Finally we interviewed the farmers to know how long used in each daily labor under the automatic milking system. The 20% of the cows in the herd had a delay in milking, 50% of these had no apparent reason, i.e. they were “lazy” cows. The main cause of delay (18.4%) was lameness or poor mobility of the cows. Of the total time for milking with automatic milking system, farmers spend 63.1% in involuntary milkings.

  • Determinants of design and organizational efficiency of the dairy farms

    Irimia, S., Escudero, C., Álvarez, C.

    The dairy farms evolved substantially since 1986 (Spain joins the EU), suffered cyclical processes of restructuring and abandonment, present today where many farms are confronted the difficult decision to continue or stop production. For this reason, it is essential get the best designs for farms, because in the competitive situation existing, the optimal profitability requires investment costs and operational as optimized as possible. Analyzing the plant design in dairy farms in Galicia, it is intended that the level of work efficiency approaching European standards. It is imperative that the geometric design of the different units, characterized by a shape and a surface, and the consequent relationship between them to generate the building is a design process that will allow us to achieve optimum results. From the study of plant distributions in a sample of 50 dairy cattle farms in Galicia randomly selected related to indices of shape and surface, total and the different agencies will attempt to determine the most efficient solutions.

  • Basis for sustainable management of river ecosystems: Diagnosis, characterization, management and restoration under the Water Framework Directive

    Cuadrado, V., Neira, X.X., Cuesta, T.S.

    A decade after the Water Framework Directive became effective, once we can create appropriate assessment tools to measure the damage that is caused by the intensification of land use and spatial planning policies, having the EU re-oriented the foundation of its farm policy promoting rural multi-functionality and developing strategies able to promote the conservation of the environment and balance territorial justice through economic incentives. At this point, it is time to assess the risk of failing the objectives there advocated the Framework Directive and propose solutions to this situation. For that, we have created sustainability indicators (Environmental, landscape and socioeconomic)  analyzing river ecosystems from four integrated perspectives. The work presented shows the results corresponding to the characterization of the river basin, the valuation, management and restoration of Saá River Basin.

  • Cost analysis. Technical and economic management of dairy farms as advice tool

    Escudero, C., Irimia, S., Álvarez, C.

    Talk about a businessman who does not know the costs of production of his company, it is think that his company would be condemned to the closing. However, this is the situation of the majority dairy farms in Galicia. The price of the milk paid to the producer suffered big fluctuations. They had certain stability until the year 2006, with big raises during two years later and producing a notable decrease in 2008 and forward. The UE Agriculture Commission presented an offer to regulate the contracts between dairy farmers and dairy industry, which must include information about the price, deadlines and quantity of deliveries as well as his duration, and that the conditions can turn in obligatory. As we indicated, the ignorance of the costs of production by farmers, limiting their survival, placed at a disadvantage against  industry and slows their negotiating capacity for setting milk prices in contracts. In this context is the base of the proposed research as a significant way to provide solutions to the problems of the dairy sector in Galicia.

  • Effect of irrigation systems in the variety Albariño: single crop coefficients and water stress

    Fandiño, M., Martínez, E.M., Rey, B.J., Cancela, J.J.

    Knowing the physical characteristics of the soil and the time evolution of the soil water status are essential to implement precision irrigated viticulture. This paper refers to the calibration of vineyard crop coefficients and the related model prediction of the soil water content, and the evaluation of water stress in a vineyard typical of Galicia. With this objective, during the period 2008-2010, field experiments were carried out in a traditional “semi-trellised” vineyard (V. vinifera var. Albariño) of Galicia, Northwest Spain. The field experiment included four vineyard treatments: two sites rainfed (R) and two sites irrigated (drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI)). The irrigation scheduling simulation model ISAREG was adopted to calibrate the crop coefficients Kc based upon the experimental field data. The model was calibrated using field data of a rainfed treatment and validated with data relative to all other treatments. It resulted Kc ini,=0.9, Kc mid =0.95, and Kc end =0.75, The indicators for goodness of fit of simulated versus observed soil water content relative to calibration included R2 = 0.98 and the average absolute error AAE=0.0065 m3 m-3. The validation of the model using the same Kc confirmed the appropriateness of the calibrated Kc values. R2 values range 0.93 to 0.98 and the AAE are close to 0.01 m3 m-3 for all treatments. Less water stress was observed in the SDI treatment due to irrigation despite the annual water volume applied did not exceed 60 mm Results show that the model is appropriate to define the best irrigation management practices and to be used as a tool to support precision viticulture in the region.

  • Manufacturing new products as a rural development strategy. Case of Protected Geographical Indication “Patata de Galicia”

    Piñeiro, I., Arbones, E., Gómez, M., Gómez, J., Losada, R., Díaz, F., Saa, L., Chao, J.

    This paper describes an applied research project devised for developing vacuum and modified atmosphere packed, and sterilized products made from high quality Galician potato. The project was partly funded by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (the CAP financial instrument, EAFRD) and the Department of Agriculture of the Regional Government of Galicia (NW Spain). This project was carried out by the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) “Patata de Galicia”, the packaging company Droguería Agrícola S.A. and a research group of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the University of Santiago de Compostela. It was made a market study and the most  interesting products were developed and their manufacturing methods were optimized through series of factorial experiments. Product  quality and safety were assured by means of physical, chemical, sensory and microbiological analyses, defining their use by date. The results were explained to the packers bearing the Indication label. This project is remarkable for its implications for rural development, and  can be regarded as a successful example of an EAFRD action. It contributes to improve both the competitiveness of the agricultural sector and the quality of life in rural areas, promoting the diversification of the rural economy, thus achieving several objectives of axes 1 and 3 of the EU rural development policy for 2007 to 2013. This collaborative action among a PGI, a private packaging company and a research group of a University contributed to increase product quality and added value, integrate producers and manufacturers, and popularize the techniques used. It also encourages product diversification and adds value to underused resources.

  • Physiological and agronomic response of variety Godello to different irrigation systems in two Galician Designations of Origin

    Trigo, E., Mirás, J.M., Orriols, I., Cancela, J.J.

    This work presents the results from two irrigation experiments during the 2012 growing season on the Galician traditional cultivar Godello in two Designations of Origin, Ribeiro and Valdeorras. The assay in Ribeiro consisted of two treatments: rainfed and drip irrigation to the 70% ETo, while that of Valdeorras consisted of a fixed water supply of 2 l day-1 plant-1 in the surface and subsurface drip irrigation treatments, with a rainfed control. Plant water status was monitored in both experiments and stomatal conductance and chlorophyll activity measurements were also performed. In addition, yield data were collected and musts and wines from all the treatments were analyzed. No significant differences among treatments were observed for yield parameters; for instance, in Ribeiro 4.91 and 4.89 kg plant-1 were obtained under the rainfed and irrigation treatments, respectively. In Valdeorras, 2.89 kg plant-1 under rainfed, 2.93 and 3.5 kg plant-1 under drip surface and subsurface irrigation, respectively. A slight delay in maturation was observed in irrigation treatments compared to rainfed; musts from irrigated plants presented a lower pH, a greater acidity and lower sugar content. The same trend was observed in wines.

  • Evaluation of surveillance systems of wildfires in Galician Community

    Maestro-Requena, M.G., Franco-Vázquez, L., Marey-Pérez, M. F.

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the fixed surveillance system for detecting forest fires in Galicia by drawing a map of visible surface vs. shaded areas. The result is compared to the historical positioning of fire for the 1999-2008 period by obtaining the relationship between density and visible ground surface by surveillance system (towers and huts).

  • Potential of rural tourism: an alternative to rural communities’ development of the protected area Natural Park of Viñales. Pinar del Río. Cuba.

    Martínez, Y., Díaz-Maroto, I.J., Corvea, J.L., Ferrer, Y., Farfán, H., Llanes, I., Miranda, J.C.

    In recent years the demand for activities related to the type of farm, in the tourist destination of western Cuba has increased considerably. Agricultural initiatives with the participation of rural communities that influence the Viñales National Park, this option promote tourism with a considerable level of acceptance. In this paper we describe the experiences regarding the implementation of agro mode, facilitating the participation of the residents in the handling and management of existing resources, while achieving improved quality of life and sustainable use resources, while introducing new elements into the tourism product of the destination Viñales, which aim to strengthen local identity and authenticity of the area. With the help of international collaborative projects has prompted a movement endogenous local development, for the training of farmers in the application of ecological techniques, recycling of agricultural waste, creating rural infrastructure for experimentation and satisfaction of needs and domestic energy, exposed to foreign visitors.

  • Recommendations on use of the mathematical optimization in the forest and agricultural disciplines with domestic CPUs

    Mosquera, A., Camino-Saco, A., Pérez-Rodríguez, F., Rojo-Alboreca, A., Gómez-García, E.

    Solving optimization problems based on linear programming by the Gauss-Jordan method has proved to be feasible and advisable to solving problems of forest management. However, when it is applied to large-scale problems, such as managing large short hills that divide in many stands, the objective function may contain a large number of basic variables; there is also a large set of constraints. This results in the mixing coefficients models with large difference in scale, with the consequent appearance of residues from mathematical operations, independent of numerical precision used. These residues can lead to a suboptimal solution or even prevent the resolution of the problem. To avoid this, the use of scaling techniques can homogenize the order of magnitude of the coefficients in the constraints. However, automatic scaling processes are not always efficient, while the manual scaling is not feasible due to the large volume restrictions. In this paper we present a protocol for the scaling of the variables in the constraints of linear programming problems in order to minimize the occurrence of waste.


  • Forest certification FSC standards for the use of natural rubber in Colombia

    Pulido-Sierra S.I., Silva-Calvão M.E., Ferreira-Neto J.A., Rossmann H., Rojo-Alboreca A.

    In this paper we present a proposal for specific standards for the use of natural rubber latex, which serves as the base document in the evaluation process of forest certification under the FSC system in natural rubber plantations of Colombia. These indicators and verifiers are grouped into the following areas: silvicultural treatments and procedures, bleeding, application of stimulants and waste management.

  • Production and pre-dispersive predation of Quercus robur L. acorns in Galicia. Influence on natural regeneration

    Vizoso-Arribe, O.*, Díaz-Maroto, I.J., Vila-Lameiro, P.

    In the present work is analysed the influence of production and predispersive predation of acorns on the natural regeneration of four stands of Quercus robur L. in Galicia, which are located in the Natural Park “Fragas do Eume” in A Coruña, Fraga das Saímas and Robledal de San Fitoiro in Lugo and, Robledal de Taboadelo in Pontevedra, in order to estimate, the factors that are limiting the acorn production, as well as, to quantify the loss of acorns by pre-dispersive predation and its effect on the Quercus robur L. germination process. The study was performed for three reproductive cycles: 2009-2010-2011 and the results obtained show that Quercus robur L. presents a big from year to year variability highly synchronic in the production of acorns, as well as high variability between trees of the same plot. Regarding the effect of pre-dispersive predation on the germination process of the species must comment that larvae infestation reduces the probability of germination of Quercus robur acorns being the mean germination percentage of 52% in healthy acorns and 18% in infested acorns.

  • Analysis of behavior of different self-propelled forage harvester in the forage maize harvesting

    Cascudo, N., Barcia, C., Bueno, J., Amiama C.

    In this work we have analyzed the behavior of two self-propelled forage harvester. The main difference between the two lies in the method of storage of fodder, one transfers it directly to the hopper's built while the second needs to work simultaneously with a tractor or truck where you download the materials. The study was conducted on 82 fields with orographic and similar morphological characteristics, concluding that production and shape of the farm does not interfere with the results. We analyzed the effective capacity of work, speed of work and the most common path to harvest the plots. Finally, we evaluate the cost of using each harvester in total farms studied. The results obtained indicate that there are no significant differences in the aspects analyzed with the use of different harvesters analyzed.

  • Application of automatic digital photogrammetry for the technical documentation of historical pavements. Particular case of Santiago de Compostela

    Martínez, S., Ortiz, J., Gil, M.L.

    Historical pavements are intrinsic elements of cultural heritage and require the same protection as monuments. Documenting their geometry is necessary for various reasons beyond heritage and historical considerations. Technicians need accurate data from every pavement stone because each is unique. The shape of any replacement stones must preserve the original slope to ensure that the runoff to sewers is not modified. This process requires much time and meticulous field measurements. Close-range photogrammetry and automatic image correlation (PhotoScan), in particular, automatic digital photogrammetry and 3D reconstruction algorithms, make it possible to retrieve precise metric data on irregular surfaces with a high degree of automation. This paper describes the implementation of the PhotoScan methodology applied to the geometric documentation of historical pavements. A case study is presented based on a representative section of a street (Travesía das Dúas Portas) in Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
     

  • Development and validation of a methodology for the characterization of the soundscape to stimulate of rural development

    López-Uribarri, L., Díaz-Varela, E.R., Marey-Pérez, M.F.

    Every rural area, every quiet zone, has a peculiar soundscape, a natural value the preservation of which is essential. Its acoustic environment is dominated by the noises of nature, although human beings have their role in the configuration of this environment. The absence of a methodology or guidelines for the characterization of the soundscape of rural areas generates a gap in current law and in the field of planning and land use for rural development. This study presents a first approach. Performing an exhaustive fieldwork and by mapping the landscape, an acoustic soundscape of an area in the rural municipality of Láncara, in the province of Lugo (Galicia, Spain) is characterized. Maps are obtained by representing various acoustics index and sound propagation maps generated by the sources identified allowing delimit quiet areas of the territory, those areas where nature noise is clearly dominant and low noise levels characterize the area.