Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    "The biggest obstacle in life is the wait for tomorrow and the loss of today" (Seneca). In this sense, "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)" has not lost a moment of his even short life. At this time, I'm writing the introduction of the second issue of the fourth volume, year 2013, but this fact could be considered merely mechanical, but it has a very special meaning, it means that our project, our hopes, works and only this is extremely important.

    "The future belongs to those believe in the beauty of their dreams" (Eleanor Roosevelt). Our journal continues and will continue its journey, because we believe in our "dream". Also tell you that is already operating our new website, with a much more attractive and versatile design, where, among other novelties, can see the new cover of the journal. Although, this does not mean that it will change the way of concluding these lines, because it is already part of our own history and "Not to have knowledge of what happened before you were born is to be condemned to live forever as a child." (Cicero). "In a village of La Mancha, the name of which I have no desire to call to mind, there lived not long since one of those gentlemen that keep a lance in the lance-rack, an old buckler, a lean hack, and a greyhound for coursing." ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote of La Mancha" by Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).
     

  • Prologue

    Santiago Barros Asenjo

    Lejos están ya los tiempos en que los bosques eran considerados solo productores de madera y creciente ha sido la aceptación de su multifuncionalidad. Los ecosistemas forestales, sean bosques nativos o bosques plantados, evidentemente generan madera para diferentes usos industriales, para infraestructura predial y también para energía, productos estos últimos de importancia para construcción de cercos, corrales y otros, y para la cocina y calefacción en muchas zonas rurales del mundo.

    Sin embargo, los bosques pueden igualmente ofrecer una cantidad de servicios ambientales, expresados en calidad del aire, retención de carbono, protección de suelos y aguas, hábitat para animales, conservación de biodiversidad de fauna y flora, paisajes y entornos turísticos, y también una variedad de productos forestales no madereros, como productos químicos, tinturas, colorantes, resinas, principios medicinales naturales, curtientes; alimentos, como frutos, brotes, tallos, hongos, mieles y otros; y otros materiales de gran utilidad para las comunidades rurales, como fibras, elementos para artesanías, ramas, hojas y frutos para usos ornamentales.

    El uso sostenible de todos estos productos forestales no madereros y su adecuada valorización, sin duda son elementos que agregan valor a los bosques y propician, por una parte un mayor cuidado de ellos y, por otra, un mayor interés de las comunidades rurales y un beneficio económico para estas, al emplear recursos que son en muchos casos permanentes o de generación anual y no de largos plazos como los productos madereros, y además de fácil y rápida colecta u obtención en los bosques.

    A lo anterior se agrega la posibilidad de integrar componentes agrícolas, pecuarios y forestales mediante las combinaciones conocidas como agroforestales, que proporcionan ingresos anuales o periódicos intermedios dentro de los más prolongados ciclos forestales. Dependiendo de las características topográficas, de los suelos y de los regímenes de manejo de los bosques, es posible, al menos en ciertos períodos de la rotación forestal, incorporar algunos cultivos agrícolas o realizar prácticas ganaderas, resultando esto de mutuo beneficio entre las componentes, dada la protección de los árboles a los cultivos o al ganado y el aporte de materia orgánica a los suelos de estos últimos.

    Especialmente relevantes son los productos forestales no madereros y las integraciones de componentes productivos para las comunidades rurales, que son las que se asocian directamente a los bosques, y muy principalmente a los bosques nativos que ofrecen una mayor variedad de alternativas. Las comunidades rurales son también las más afectadas en muchos países por situaciones de pobreza, de modo que no pueden depender para su subsistencia solo de los productos que en largos períodos ofrecen los bosques, como resultado de las intervenciones silvícolas de manejo o de cosecha, y todo producto que puedan extraer de los bosques de forma permanente, para su propio consumo o para venta, representará una valiosa ayuda alimenticia, económica o de otro orden.

    No es menor la investigación y frecuentes son los estudios sobre tipos, características y disponibilidades en torno a estos recursos no madereros en los últimos años, aún cuando su uso por las comunidades rurales, y muy especialmente por comunidades indígenas, es a menudo de muy larga data. El interés sobre ellos se ha incrementado en gran parte por la creciente valorización de los productos naturales, que pueden alcanzar interesantes precios en los mercados, tanto domésticos como internacionales. Algo semejante ocurre con las prácticas agroforestales, y múltiples son las combinaciones posibles en diferentes climas, suelos y tipos de bosques en el mundo.

    No obstante, las comunidades rurales por lo general no son dueñas de los bosques y los suelos, viven en ellos o próximas a ellos, razón por la que es indispensable la colaboración de los grandes propietarios o empresas, cuyo interés se centra solo en el negocio forestal basado en los productos madereros habituales, permitiendo que, de forma regulada, las comunidades locales puedan beneficiarse de los productos no madereros y de las combinaciones agroforestales compatibles con la silvicultura de los bosques, contribuyendo así a aliviar la situación de pobreza en las zonas rurales, tan frecuente en diferentes lugares del mundo.

  • Assessment of potential profitability of amaranth vegetable production under different fertility restoring technologies in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Owombo, P.T., Akinola, A.A., Koledoye, G.F., Deji, O.F., Ayodele, O.O.

    The study was conducted to assess the potential profitability of amaranth vegetable production under different fertility restoring technologies in Nigeria. The study used a multi-stage sampling technique to collect information from 120 respondents involving adopters and non-adopters of fertility restoring technologies out of which information from 117 respondents was suitable for analysis. Data were analysed with the aid of descriptive statistics, budgetary technique and multinomial logit model. The results of the budgetary technique reveal that the average  gross revenue to non-adopters was N49400.81 (N is Nigerian currency; 1N=$ 0.0064) while that of adopters of organic and inorganic fertilizers were N69996.3 and N88360.1, respectively. The average variable cost was least (N8076.74) among the non-adopters and highest (N11744.2) among the adopters of organic fertilizer. The gross margin was highest (N77456.8) among the adopters of inorganic fertilizer and least (N41324.15 among the non-adopters. The BCR was highest (5.7) among the adopters of inorganic fertilizer and least (4.38) among the
    adopters of organic manure. Results also showed that the ROR was highest (4.7) among the adopters of inorganic fertilizer and least (3.3)
    among the adopters of organic fertilizer. The results of the multinomial logic model reveal that level of education and off-farm income  significantly influenced the adoption of both organic and inorganic fertilizer technologies, respectively. There is therefore the need to encourage farmers on the importance of adopting fertility restoring technologies and put in place policy thrust that will make farmers access education and activities other than farming.

  • Influence of attitude and social belief on domestication of snail production in the South Senatorial District of Delta State Nigeria

    Ovwigho, B.O., Ifie, P.A.

    The study was designed to analyze the influence of attitude and social beliefs on domestication of snail production in the south Senatorial District of Delta State Nigeria. It was a follow-up of the introduction and technical training for commercial snail production organized by the Fadama Agricultural Development Program, Delta State Nigeria in 2010. The specific objectives were: (i) identify the sources of snail supply to major markets in the study area, (ii) assess the extent of adoption of “snailery” by the program participants, (iii) examine the attitude of the program participants to domestication of snail production; (iv) ascertain the influence of social beliefs on domestication and consumption of snail; and (v) draw a relationship between religious affiliation and domestication of snail. An interview schedule which consisted of structured and semi structured items was used for data collection. Simple random sampling was used in selecting the program participants. Snow ball sampling was used in selecting snail traders in markets where the traders were scattered within the vicinity. Data were measured by the use of four point Likert type rating scale. Data were analyzed by the use of percentage, mean and Chi square test. It was found that the major source of snail supply to the markets was through wild gathering (91.18%). A high number of the program participants (88.04%) have adopted “snailery” but only (6.17%) have offered their products for sale in the markets. The program participants showed favourable disposition to eight and unfavourable disposition to two attitude statements with a grand mean of 3.22 and 1.82 respectively. The respondents agreed that some people forbid snail meat because of religious and cultural reasons hence the large scale domestication was slow (M=2.65). This meant that religion and culture affected large scale domestication of snail production. There was a significant relationship (p < 0.05) between domestication of snail production and religious affiliation (X2=49.15). Donor agencies and social workers should take into cognizance the social environment of an innovation before the introduction in order to facilitate its adoption. Education campaign geared to appreciate the value of snail consumption and domestication should be carried out by development intervention agencies in the study area.


  • Detection of genetic variability of Bremia lactucae Regel. by RAPD and ISSR in lettuce plantations

    Martínez-Martínez, S., Alarcón, A., Urrieta-Velázquez, J.A., Rojas-Martínez, R.I., Ferrera-Cerrato, R., Alvarado-Rosales D.

    The genetic variability of the pseudofungus and obligated parasite Bremia lactucae Regel was determined. Ten indicators of random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD) and 10 indicators of Intersequences simple repeated (ISSR). Fifteen isolates were obtained from infested plant tissue with Bremia lactucae collected from Salamanca y San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato. Only 8 indicators of ISSR detected polymorphism with a value of 91.6% which is an indicator of high genetic variability of Bremia lactucae in the two studied locations. The RAPD indicators do not detected polymorphism among the 15 isolates. The grouping of isolates was performed on the basis of the  polymorphic patterns obtained from ISSR that indicated the genetic variability of the pathogen in the two locations, and also on the sampling dates and the main environment conditions in both locations. The significance of the genetic variability of this pseudofungus lies on its detection during early stages of an epidemy.

  • Managing grouse hunting grounds

    Lyng, A.M., Sky, P.K.

    The core aim of this study has been to understand decision-making processes in conjunction with managing hunting grounds for grouse. The study has looked at when the decisions are made, which people make them, on what basis they are made and their consequences. For the period 2006 to 2010, we have investigated the actions taken and decisions made by the managers of a selection of hunting grounds. Over that same period there was a significant decline in the grouse population. We interviewed the managers of nine private hunting grounds and eleven state commons. These interviews, along with annual reports and land management plans, constitute our source material. In spite of the big difference between how landowners’ associations and state commons are organised, and the fact that the state commons are run by qualified professionals, there was little difference in how they managed their hunting grounds. Both private landowners’ associations and state commons implemented various measures over the studied period, although they varied in scope and duration. We believe that better reporting and improved cooperation between hunting grounds would improve the management of grouse populations.


  • Classification of owners and identification of forest Management patterns by cluster and discriminant analysis

    Rodríguez-Vicente, V., Marey-Pérez, M.F.

    Within the international public debate, scientific and political, on sustainable forest management and rural development, the so-called "non-industrial private forest owners NIPF" (NIPF owners) receive special attention because, as managers almost exclusive in world-wide forest regions, played, play and will play a key role in integrating, in a balanced way, the diversity of uses and functions of forest policies on promotion and revitalization of rural areas. Analyzing the forest region named “A Mariña Oriental”, North Galicia (Spain) this study aims to contribute to the scientific field by means of an useful empirical tool for classification and differentiation of NIPF owners from knowledge and understanding of socio-economic and territorial attributes, and forest management. Thus, a total of 103 NIPF owners were personally interviewed in 2004 in order to characterize and define their agroforestry system during the period from 1999 to 2003. Using multivariate statistical techniques, this study applied cluster and discriminant analysis in order to firstly group significant variables in the formation of clusters of NIPF owners, without losing information of relevance, and secondly to build a realistic model of empirical classification. The used methodology established three clear profiles of NIPF owner (retired foresters, farm foresters and absentee foresters) and, therefore, three significantly different management patterns. Thus, the characterization of NIPF owners will design and implement support measures and  incentives to family forestry consistent with reality starting forest, i.e., developed patterns of forest management.

  • Floristic composition of vegetation woody riverside in the watershed “Esmeralda”. El Capón. National Park Viñales

    Fleitas, R., Martínez, Y., Paneque, I., Corvea, J.L., Ferrer, Y., Llanes, I.

    This work was developed in the watershed "Esmeralda", the main tributary of the watershed "Palmarito", Viñales Municipality, Pinar del Rio, from October 2006 to January 2011, with the aim of adequately characterize woody vegetation associated gallery ecosystem of the study area, with the use of some biodiversity indexes such as diversity indexes, richness, uniformity, relative presence and abundance or proportional coverage. The results show the level of degradation to which has been subjected the ecosystem during years, mainly by intensive sowing the agricultural crops in the margins of rivers (gallery forests), the indiscriminate felling of the main species which making up or made up the watershed and the presence of invasive species, as is evidenced in the behavior of the indicators.

  • Solidarity economy and commonality in the construction of rural progress: The case of the Nevería in Mexico

    Rosas-Baños, M., Correa-Holguín, D., Cruz-Álvarez, A.

    In recent years we have references of an increasing number of rural experiences are characterized by overcoming the conditions of marginalization and poverty and make sustainable management of land. Those kinds of experience tell us about the emergence of forms of socioeconomic organization linked to values that generally does not promote the capitalism. This paper presents an analysis of a small community of Oaxaca (Mexico) who has overcome poverty and marginalization conditions focusing its food self-development. Theoretical approaches are used in the rural economy, solidarity and commonality to discuss the following question: What percentage of the rural economy remains in decisions socioeconomic transformation of the community and bring the solidarity economy in understanding the process of change?. To this end, 24 in-depth interviews were heads of households or their representatives, with 43 open questions, using a Likert scale to analyze their perception of the types of relationships in productive activities, factors of production, exchange, trust, reciprocity, support external agents, community organization and the common good. We conclude that the solidarity economy and comunalitiy provide elements to explain the local progress of the study area.