Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    "To live is not to survive a storm, rather it is to dance in the rain".  Well, our journal, "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)", has achieved not only dance and caper, with what´s been happening but we gradually overcoming, but surely, the "stones" that we have encountered in our short road yet. This number corresponds to the first of the fourth volume of SJRD and, considering that we have received more than 50 articles for review and possible publication in 2012, I trust that this year we will exceed that figure.

    "The future has many names. For the weak it is unattainable. For the fearful, the unknown. For determined it is the opportunity" (Victor Hugo). The crises, even if it were persistent, are always transient, since there is no evil that lasts a hundred years. "Spanish Journal of Rural Development" continues its journey peacefully, and with a perceptible and sure objective, conquering new goals, in short, we are increasingly aware of that "the impossible is often the untried". Finally, tell you that in a few days we will have our new website operational, with a much more attractive and versatile design, also with the publication of Volume IV, we have changed the look of the cover of SJRD, but you do not think that I'll change how close these lines, because that is part of our own history. "I am Don Quijote, and my profession is knight-errant. My laws are to resolve wrongs, to lavish the good and to avoid evil. I flee of the easy life, ambition and hypocrisy, and I look for the more narrow and difficult path in order to my own glory. Is that, silly and fool? "(" The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha "by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    Mª Elena Alañón Pardo

    Ageing wines in wooden barrels is a historical processing step that is still used today. Initially, this practice was instituted for the storage and transport of wines, but it was later used due to its positive effects on aged products. The aging process plays a significant role in winemaking due to its effect on the flavor, color, tannin profile and texture of the resulting wines. These new features, acquired for aged wines during their period of maturation, known as “bouquet”, are appreciated and well-valued by consumers.

    Oak heartwood is by far the most frequently used material for the construction of containers in cooperage industry. Traditionally, only three oak species have been widely utilized in cooperage for barrel production with aging purposes (Quercus alba L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus robur L.). Forests in America, for the former species, and France for the rest, are the main sources of these oak wood species. Indeed, in the field of oenology, the type of oak wood commonly used in the maturation process is known as American or French oak wood. The aging step is carried out solely and exclusively with these oak wood species. This fact not only is causing a significant depletion of the major producing areas of cooperage oak, but also an important homogeneity in the supply of aged wines.

    Furthermore, one of the main problems of wineries today is the competition in the current market place. Consumers are overwhelmed by the wide range of wines that the current market offers. Therefore, the quality of wines is not enough by itself in such competitive market. The need to attract the attention of consumers by means of differentiator items as an effective tool to diversify their products and to distance themselves from their competitors in a clear and effective way is of vital importance to any winery. Therefore, looking for new wood sources alternative to traditional oak wood species is of particular interest to elaborate new aged wines with particular personality.

  • Review of evaluation models for determining impact of rural development projects.

    Nlerum, F.E.

    The study revises the concept of evaluation with emphasis on the models for determining the impact of rural development projects. Secondary sources of information from existing literatures were used for the review. Also, it revises such concepts of evaluation as the meaning, types, reasons, focus, elements and models. It was indicated that impact of rural development projects would be sustainably determined with any of the four evaluation models such as project and non-project participants, reflective evidence to appraise program, means-ends and effectiveness models. The study recommends evaluation because it is needed to identify strengths and constraints of projects, generate data for planning and decision-making, provide accountability for public funds and provide data for justification or otherwise of projects.

  • Carbon sequestration international project; successful sample in creating people and participation organizations in village development (Hossein Abad plain, south Khorasan province, east of Iran).

    Falsolaiman, M., Sadeghi, H., Chakoshi, B.

    Participation is really a suitable lever for economical development of rural region that can be very efficient in improving life condition, working, production and income level promotion and social condition of rural people. This can be obviously seen in carbon sequestration international project activities with participation of global organization like GEF (Global Environment Facility) & UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) for rang lands rehabilitations that were destroyed totally because of the presence of Afghan immigrants in east of Iran borders. In this project, people participation was formed in organized foundations in villages in name of village development groups in separation of men, women or both. The goal in the present project was investigation the people formed organization in relation to participation index in region to be studied (Hossein Abad Ghinab plain) in south Khorasan, province in east of Iran border with Afghanistan. The present project is based on functional entity and descriptive –analytic method that the questionnaire technique, interview and present documents were used for gathering data. Results showed that creating village development groups and micro credit funds as people formed organization has caused basic changes in social condition, economical and
    bioenvironmental. On the hand, public and direct participation of people is the other successful factor that the present project has organized it the best way people participation in environmental plans, like planting, increasing village development groups in different years, and also rise in income index, financial saving and is the result of  people participation by the people formed organizations.

  • Applicability of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. byproduct as biosorbent in the removal of chromium from water.

    Rubio, F., Gonçalves Jr., A.C., Strey, L., Meneghel, A.P., Coelho, G.F., Nacke, H.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using crambe seeds byproduct as biosorbent in the removal of chromium heavy metal from contaminated solutions. By means of scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and the determination of the point of zero charge was performed the biosorbent characterization. The influence of various conditions on the ions adsorption, such as solutions at different pH conditions, variation of the biosorbent masses, contact time and temperature were investigated, and the metal concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectrometry flame mode. In trials to obtain the isotherms, the mathematical models of Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich best fitted the experimental data. The desorption study demonstrated intense interaction between the metal and adsorbent, which confirms the data from the pseudosecond order model and mean energy of Dubinin-Radushkevich model for chemiosorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of biosorbent was estimated at 6.807 mg.g-1. To comparative study with a commercial adsorbent, activated carbon was used for tests of adsorption and desorption. Based on these results, it was concluded that the byproduct was effective in removing chromium from aqueous solutions, and its use as a viable alternative material for this metal removal, in addition to being a byproduct, which has not suffered pretreatment.

  • Fuel-wood usage assessment among rural households in Ghana.

    Wiafe, E. D., Kwakwa, P. A.

    The current situation regarding fuel-wood consumption among rural households in Ghana was assessed in relation to its determinant factors. Response from the 207 household heads randomly selected from six regions showed that majority rely on fuel-wood for cooking, heating of water, warming their houses, lighting and ironing. The uses of fuel-wood were found to be associated with some challenges including scent of smoke in food, issues with supply, inability to use
    fuel-wood during wet season and slow in cooking. The logistic regression model employed also explained that employment, income level and Liquefied Petroleum Gas usage significantly influenced the consumption of fuel-wood as energy among the respondents.

  • PCA Technical to diagnose the technical efficiency of dairy farms in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Irimia, S., Álvarez, C., Escudero, C.

    Improving the production efficiency of dairy farms is a hot topic. The current competitiveness in the dairy industry requires detailed investigation of the mechanisms that lead to optimal holdings. Yet, optimality is dependent on the production process developed on the farm, its size and type. This paper presents a research conducted on 50 dairy farms that are representative of Galician dairy farms with herd sizes in a range between 27 and 85 cows. The estimated yield is expressed in kilograms of whole milk per hour worked (kgFCmilk hour-1), we use the methodology of dairy farms congress indicating that we are at values well below the UE. We have analysed production efficiency by directly measuring the time spent by workers performing farm operations and determining the typological features of the farms. Based on the data obtained from dairy farms, we have classified farms into three groups according to their levels of efficiency by using multivariate analysis. Our research line aims at enhancing the profits of dairy farms in Galicia by providing farmers with ideas for improving the efficiency records of their productive processes.

  • Microcycas calocoma (Miq.) A.DC. threatened a survivor of  the past in the present.

    Ferrer, Y.,Martínez, Y., Miranda, J.C., Corvea, J.L., Padilla, J.

    The knowledge of the conservation state of biodiversity is one of the essential elements for the management of protected areas. Among the methods currently being developed for it highlights the monitoring of species, which by its nature can be classified as indicators of certain elements in the ecology of the area. Microcycas calocoma (Miq.) A.DC. was declared a National Natural Monument, considering its strict endemism, rarity taxonomic and geographic scientific importance and aesthetic values. Thus it is recognized as a “Jewel of the Flora of Cuba”. In turn the wide distribution (relative) of this
    species in different areas of the park and provide a phorophyte Viñales for many epiphytic species, justifies that this is considered an umbrella species and flag, when it study to the conservation of endangered Cuban species. This paper presents the results of monitoring for eight years, which assessed the state of Microcycas calocoma in five locations Viñales National Park. By the method of total count were obtained interesting data on the individuals’ number, population structure, number of individuals in reproductive status, plant health, epiphytes and associated flora in the study areas, and the degree of human disturbance and forest cover in the different areas. All of which has led to a plan for the management of this species, which include actions ex situ and in situ.

  • Critical analysis of rural development initiatives in Pakistan: implications for sustainable development.

    Luqman, M., Shahbaz, B., Ali, T., Iftikhar, M.

    In the global world poverty persists and dominates in rural areas. To develop rural people on sustained basis like other developing countries, in Pakistan many rural development programs were initiated during the last six decades but was terminated due to one or many reasons. The major concerns relating to the failure or termination of these programs were economic (well-being), social and environmental sustainability. In all the rural development programs focus was given increase in the production of agricultural farms and no emphasis was given to the non-farm income activities as well as
    environmental issues. Due to which poverty dominate and persists in rural areas, especially women and marginalized groups become more vulnerable. In this situation state should give special emphasis to environmental issues and rural non-farm income resources for sustainable development in the country.

  • Capacity building for climate change adaptation: modules for agricultural extension curriculum development in Nigeria.

    Ogunbameru, B.O, Mustapha, S.B., Idrisa, Y.L.

    Basically, climate change refers to any modify in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the frontline agricultural extension workers, based on the myriad of adaptation strategies and practices available in the bibliography. This paper synthesizes the rationale for capacity building in climate change and the adaptation or coping strategies. The modules (train-the-trainer) for teaching agricultural extension workers and farmers also are documented.