Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    The issue of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)" presented, corresponds to the Special Issue 1, Volume III, Year 2012, which corresponds to the "Monograph on innovative methods and trends in oenology and viticulture" and which sets out a series of articles dealing with trends and opportunities in the marketing of wine.

    With the publication of this issue, the magazine "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)" continues forward on the track to establish itself as a journal of quality, both nationally and internationally and is firm in the purpose of publishing special issues of relevant topics directly related to rural development. Therefore, currently is working on the publication of another special issue in which there will be a compilation of papers presented at the Frontiers Iberian Congress organized by the University Complutense of Madrid on 31 and April 1, 2011.

    All these facts are further steps forward in this difficult journey, which allow say that "Spanish Journal of Rural Development", not as a mere project, but as a reality.

  • Prologue

    Carlos Falcó

    Los vinos de pago en el mercado global

    El pago: un concepto de excelencia

    Se llama pago a un viñedo cuyas características lo diferencian de los viñedos circundantes en la zona. Estas diferencias pueden deberse a diversos factores: una estructura de suelo peculiar, una orientación específica, un clon de cepas diferentes,…. El resultado de estas peculiaridades confiere a estos viñedos singulares una calidad de fruto excepcional.

    La Ley 24/2003 de la viña y del vino contempla diferentes niveles de calidad, entre los que se contempla el vino de pago, y establece unos criterios por los que se regulan dichos vinos, y que se detallan a continuación:
    “Pago” es un paraje o sitio rural con características edáficas y de microclima propias, que lo diferencian y distinguen de otro entorno. Los vinos de pago serán elaborados y embotellados por personas físicas y jurídicas que ostenten la titularidad de los viñedos ubicados en le pago o con carácter excepcional en bodegas situadas en la proximidad del pago. Toda la uva que se destine al vino de pago deberá proceder de viñedos ubicados en el pago determinado y el vino deberá almacenarse, y, en su caso, criarse, de forma separada de otros vinos. En la elaboración de los vinos de pago se implantará un sistema de calidad integral, que se aplicará desde la producción de la uva hasta la puesta en mercado de los vinos.

    La inmensa mayoría de los grandes vinos del mundo (> 90 puntos en las guías) proceden de un pago. Su importancia es por tanto decisiva para el prestigio de una región vitivinícola. Su superioridad cualitativa y mediática se apoya en valores universalmente reconocidos en el Siglo XXI, como es la integración de la viticultura y enología practicadas al máximo nivel de calidad, calidad medioambiental, respeto a los valores arquitectónicos y paisajísticos, envasado (botellas, etiquetas, corchos, embalajes) de alta calidad., relación estrecha con los cocineros de vanguardia, sumilleres, críticos de vino, etc.

    El consumidor de estos vinos es crecientemente experto y, por tanto, exigente. Se trata también de mercados cada vez más sofisticados: para acceder a ellos, ya no es suficiente elaborar vinos de alta calidad, deben ser diferentes y tener historia. La personalidad sofisticada se logra hoy mediante el diseño de los viñedos y de los vinos, el inicio de cualquier estrategia de marketing con posibilidades de éxito.

    España y el renacimiento de los vinos de pago

    A lo largo del Siglo XX, España sufre una progresiva deriva colectivista: se fomentan especialmente las cooperativas y denominaciones de origen. A finales del Siglo XX y principios del Siglo XXI se produce un renacimiento de la cultura del vino a nivel global, que favorece la mejora de su calidad y revaloriza extraordinariamente los Grands Crus Classés o Grandes vinos de pago de Burdeos y sucesivamente, los de otras regiones vinícolas europeas tradicionales o emergentes.

    España tiene una extraordinaria variedad de microclimas y suelos, y por tanto presenta condiciones ideales para crear vinos de pago diferenciados. A partir de 1990, empieza a destacar una nueva generación de vinos de pago que ponen en valor esa extraordinaria diversidad y se crea la asociación Grandes Pagos de España (Inicialmente Grandes Pagos de Castilla) con objeto de defender su insustituible contribución a la imagen de calidad de las diferentes regiones vitícolas españolas y su reconocimiento en la normativa del sector.

    Tanto en el Decreto 127/200 de Castilla La Mancha como la Ley 24/2003 reconocen oficialmente el concepto de vinos de pago y lo promueven a la máxima categoría, incluyendo la posibilidad de conceder a los pagos más prestigiosos una denominación de origen, posteriormente ampliada a otras regiones.

  • Strategic management of the brand in the world of wine

    Cerviño, J., Baena, V.

    This paper analyzes the importance of brands as strategic elements to gain competitiveness in global market of wine, either for Spain as a major producer and exporter of wine or for any winery what seeks to expand its business through exports or internationalization. A better international positioning of Spanish brands in foreign markets not only will improve the competitiveness of wineries and the “Spain Brand” through the positive effects of the “Wines from Spain” image, but also will allow Spanish wineries to confront the imminent challenges of an increasing competitive international rivalry in the sector and the growing globalization of the wine market. The new situation is characterized by the fast irruption of well known brands from the new world producers, the increasing power of distributor´s own brands in the major export markets, and the accelerated configuration of large global multinational wine groups with enough power to negotiate directly with the larger global retailers and with the financial capability to acquire leading local brands. Certainly, this type of strategy requires a strong coordination and support among wineries, the geographic and origin denomination regulator institutions and the country institutions in charge of export promotion activities.

  • Considerations about the potential of precision viticulture in Galicia.

    García, J.M.

    The author reviews the trajectory and the main features of the precision viticulture as well as its justification for the need to take into account the variability that is usually present in the plots dedicated to vineyard, to develop management plans that take into account this variability, to increase the production and the quality of the winegrowing crops. It also discusses the characteristics, objectives and methodologies of the different stages that must be addressed when implementing these technologies and their future prospects. The review warns about the desirability of addressing the incorporation of these techniques with a flexible approach, both in terms of implementation cost (highly variable depending on the technical and economic objectives of each operation), and by the variety of available techniques make it available for almost any kind of exploitation. Finally, include a series of reflections designed to identify the growing areas and types of establishments that have a greater potential for the eventual implementation of precision viticulture in Galicia.

  • Influence of fertigation in organoleptic parameters of Albariño wine.

    Cancela, J.J., Fandiño, M., Martínez, E.M., Rey, B.J.

    The use of fertigation in vineyards is influenced by physical properties of soils and plant development, being critical knowledge of soil water content and plant water status. The objectives are to analyze the effects of fertigation on the production, maintaining a homogeneous quality-quantity relation, using a pair of irrigation systems. The methods used have been the water activity meter (WAM) for leaf water potential and time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring water content in the soil. The results show that in the four years studied the vineyards of treatment “subsurface drip irrigation” show a better “water status” in both soil and plant, as opposed to “drip irrigation”, and in both versus control treatment “without irrigation”. We conclude that the application of nutrients through irrigation water does not mean altering the stressful situation that requires the vineyard, but the irrigation water reduces the water stress that the plant is subjected (without irrigation), without influencing the quality parameters of grape must.

  • Use of cold for the production of sweet Albariño wine.

    Fandiño, P.

    Vitis vinifera cv Albariño is a Galician native grape variety which produces fresh wines with an oceanic character focused. It is a variety with potential for applying new production techniques and get different kinds of wine, therefore, the objective of this project is to apply two processing techniques involving the use of cold, crioextraction and supraextraction for developing of a sweet and varietal wine. The supraextraction is freezing and defreezing of the harvest before being pressed to break the cell structure and cause the extraction of aromatic precursors and other components. The crioextraction consists on freezing harvest to get a must more rich in sugars. For the application of these techniques are used Dry Ice, Carbon dioxide in solid state with a high cooling capacity (152 kcal/kg), it was applied to the harvest before pressing, later also used to cause stop fermentation and obtain a high residual sugar content. Evaluated the analytical results and taste the wine produced meets a sweet wine, varietal, fresh, structured with and long finish, which allows it to be a wine suitable for trading.

  • Study of the suitability of the wood of different native species of oak (Quercus robur L., Q. pyrenaica Willd. and Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl.) in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula for making barrels for raising wines.

    Díaz-Maroto, I.J., Algueira, F., Mazaira, J.,Vila-Lameiro, P., Vizoso-Arribe. O.

    The starting point of this work has been the accomplishment of a forest inventory in stands of the most abundant autochthonous species of the kind Quercus in the Peninsular Northwest (Quercus robur L., Q. pyrenaica Willd. and Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl.). With the obtained information, have been calculated the ecological and silvicultural parameters needed to characterize ecologically the forest station and also describe, from the stand point of forestry, such stands so that it is possible to know the potential of the different locations for obtaining of suitable wood for aging wine, allowing even know in advance whether or not perform silvicultural activities to achieve that objective. On the other hand, the information xilology (wood physical parameters, such as the proportion of bark, sapwood and heartwood, density, porosity and grain of the wood) obtained from different samples from trees felled in the stands inventoried, will allow us to value the suitability of the wood for the production of barrels of species studied.

  • Rapid identification and quantification of chemical contaminants considered the most important organoleptic defects of wine.

    Chatonnet, P., Labadie, D., Boutou, S., Fleury, A., Carrillo, J.D., Palacios, A.T.

    Control of the organoleptic quality of wines is essential to ensure a product free of sensory faults to the final consumer. Sensory analysis is a subjective technique under the influence of multiple external factors that also lacks measurement units. In addition, a sensory fault detected during the tasting, may result from synergy between various compounds considered as contaminants. It is very difficult to link a fault to its source without having a precise identification and quantification of pollutants involved in relation to their olfactory perception thresholds when taste the wine. For this reason, the laboratory has tried to find a chemical analysis method of high resolution for fine analysis allowing quantification, as is the case of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry used in the systematic method called Check list Excel®. The method developed by this laboratory allows simultaneous diagnosis and identification of the olfactory faults origin from very different backgrounds in a single analysis, taking a time of 60 minutes with a small sample of only 5 mL of wine. This technique can be used as quality control of wine post-fermentation process of wine; can help in the purchase and sale of wines, especially in warehouses dedicated to bottled wines. Especially this method is very interesting for developing coupages, as this method is always able to detect and quantify the defective compounds below the sensory detection.

  • Study of the implantation of autochthonous and commercial yeasts during fermentation with grape must and pomace of Galician varieties.

    Blanco, P., Orriols, I.

    In this study the implantation ability of autochthonous and commercial yeasts during grape must and pomace fermentation was evaluated. Samples for yeast isolation were taken at different stages of fermentation and a representative number of colonies from each one were isolated. Those colonies identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized at strain level by mtDNA-RFLPs analysis. The results showed that those yeast strains added to musts from white varieties were able to lead the fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae strains tested for the red variety Mencía fermented in codominance with the commercial strain Excellence XR; the later was the dominant yeasts when it was used as starter culture. Finally, fermentations of pomace from Treixadura y Godello with Vitilevure KD showed the predominance of this yeast; however, the other commercial strain (BDX) did not show good adaptation to Albariño pomace, which was successfully fermented by the autochthonous yeast XG3.

  • Qualitative analysis of the volatile fraction of different kinds of wine cork stoppers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Díaz-Maroto, M.C., Guchu, E., Alañón, M.E., Castro Vázquez, L., Pérez-Coello, M.S.

    The qualitative volatile composition of simultaneous distillationextraction (SDE) extracts of different types of cork stoppers has been determined. Eighty one volatile compounds have been identified, belonged to different chemical families: terpenoids, aliphatic carbonyl compounds, furanoids, carboxylic acids, esters, phenolic compounds, alkanes and alcohols. Compounds responsible for the organoleptic wine defect known as “cork taint”, like 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, 1-octen3-ol, 1-octen-3-one and geosmin, were found in all the cork samples.

  • Relational marketing. Basic concepts and practical examples.

    Rebollo, J.

    In many cases the executive committees and meetings business budgets start with questions like why are we losing customers? What can we do to attract more customers? What our customers tell us? The reality is that a lot of companies left to the experience, knowledge accumulated over the years and in the hands of some improvisation that prevent reliable analysis of the behavior and the relationship that customers have (or not) with us.