Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    "The freedom of expression is to say that which the people do not want to hear" (George Orwell). It is 20:45 PM on 11st of October, that is to say, we are theoretically, at the beginning of the long weekend of the Hispanic world. I am in my office at the Polytechnic School of the University of Santiago de Compostela and in my hallway, there is only light in my office. Nevertheless, I think that now is a good time to write these paragraphs, because I'm writing the introduction of the fourth number of volume III, in 2012, of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)". This issue completes the third volume of our journal, who would have thought. In addition, 2012 has been an extremely productive year for SJRD, and we still have plans to publish a fourth special issue, before of the end of this year.

    "The future is not in our hands. We do not exercise power over it. We can only act here and now "(Mother Teresa of Calcuta). For which reason, despite everything, we are still working here and now, because our illusions growth with the passage of time and, "Spanish Journal of Rural Development" continues its way with a clear and indisputable objective. To the major milestones achieved with our journal, we will continue adding other, even more important, I do not doubt. No, you do not think that I had forgotten how should complete these lines, there it goes, "Sancho, a man is not more than another if he do not does more than another. All these tempests that happens are signs that the weather will soon calms, and good things will happen to us, because it is not possible that the good or evil are durable, if the evil lasted long, the good is already near" ("The ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de La Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    Manuel Marey-Pérez

    There are change winds in the old Europe which punish especially hard this Finisterre Iberian region called Galicia. We, the Galicians, those whom a venerable Portuguese playwright defined as "amphibious beings" by our ability to live in / and of the earth, in/and of the sea have always known to be able to face reality with great pragmatism that we translated to sayings, so that in a few words reflected our understanding of life. Two of the most common are: “The person who saves always has something” or “Never rained that will not clear” both summary our farsighted character and also, although often from outside we are not considered this way, our optimistic character, but to the Galician.

    I take reflection of the previous paragraph to speak of a new issue of “Spanish Journal of Rural Development” that is edited by “Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIEDRU)”. This Journal is a good example of that in he prosperity times, it is necessary to carry out initiatives with a good basis and good forwardlooking approach which remain in the time and they are used as refuge, for the diffusion of the research, in very difficult moments which it is not just research , it is disseminate as well.

    Also, If you don not mind I will be optimistic, and using the second Galician saying, I state that the situation of anxiety that we are going through at this time will not last forever. Sign of this are the published works in this issue, where we can see that in areas of the world in which the research was scarce, there are, at these time, quality works that demonstrate the progress that is being carried out in their agricultural sectors. Will these new research groups of novice universities be or will researchers with over 500 years of history be which will continue seeking new challenges and answers to questions that society is itself, in this case, How do we go out of the current economic and social storm?

  • Production and nutrient accumulation in Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) fertilized with swine manure in clayey soil.

    Zenatti, R., Gonçalves Jr., A., Nacke, H., Schwantes, D., Coelho, G.F., Strey L., Oliveira, P.S.R.

    The aim of this study was to determine the production and nutrient content of Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) fertilized with doses of swine manure and biofertilizer. The soil used in this study was a Rhodic Eutrudox. The treatments consisted of two forms of manure (in natura and biofertilizer), with four doses and four replications. Mean production of the grass in the first cutting based on fresh matter (FM) was 6,572 kg ha-1 and for dry matter (DM) 3,511 kg ha-1. The different types of manure had an effect on the Mg contents, and the doses had an effect on the contents of N, P, K, Mg, Cu, and Fe. In the second cutting, the mean production for FM was 7,590 kg ha-1 and for DM 3,632 kg ha-1; the sources had an effect on the P and Cu contents and the doses had an effect on the contents of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. By the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that the application of natural manure led to greater production of Tifton 85 when compared to the biofertilizer, and, furthermore, the leaf content of the nutrients N, P and K and of the micronutrients Fe, Cu and Zn increased according to the doses applied and sources used.

  • Rural policies in the area of adaptation strategies to climate change.

    Lugo-Morin, D.R.

    The unfolding of patrons of sustainable development and to conserve the production capacity of agroecosystems for the future generations is an urgent question. Both efforts must go accompanied of public policies battle to the climate change directed to support the adaptation efforts that arise from the social actors who make life in the rural territories. The present work raise as objective to make a frame of reference for the design of public policies oriented basically to the support of the adaptation strategies that arise from small producers, peasantry and indigenous battle the climate change in the rural areas. The study has made possible the presentation of a referential model for elaboration of rural policies.

  • Selection of avocado rootstocks for tolerance-resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. using controlled temperature.

    Andrade, H.P., De León, C., Espíndola, B.M.C., Alvarado, R.D., López, J.A., García, E.R.

    The avocado root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. is globally the main problem limiting the production of this crop. The present study was aimed to evaluate the radial mycelia growth of this pathogen in vitro under controlled temperatures different (17, 28 and 34 °C), as well as determiner the optimal temperatures for growth of the pathogen. Finally, select avocado rootstocks of the Mexican race with tolerance-resistance to P. cinnamomi in under certain conditions of temperature and pressure of inoculums. This selection was done by inoculating groups of plants of the Mexican race Atlixco, Tepeyanco and Tepetl, and rootstocks Thomas and Duke-7 with mycelia suspension of 250 ml/plant of P. cinnamomi at temperatures of 17 to 28 °C. The selection of rootstocks tolerant-resistant with controlled temperature showed a positive interaction. Atlixco and Tepeyanco consistently, showed a high level of tolerance-resistance with only 10% of plants developed wilt symptoms. These results prove that Atlixco and Tepeyanco can be considered promising rootstocks resistant to P. cinnamomi, as most of the plants survived and showed over 90% of symptomless plants at both temperatures. The rootstock Thomas, Duke-7 and Tepetl presented intermediate resistance.

  • The barrier to women involvement in agro forestry and role of oil palm in Nigeria

    Bankole, A.S., Adekoya, A.E., Nwawe, C.N., Akinbile, L.N.

    The problem of high rate of deforestation of the country’s natural resource caused by population growth and economic pressure necessitates interest in agroforestry to encourage sedentary agriculture and rejuvenate degraded soils. The study therefore aims at assessing the constraint to the utilization of women knowledge of agroforestry in Oluyole local government area of Oyo State and the role of oil palm in these practices. The study was done randomly by sampling and
    interviewing an average of 25 women farmers in each of the 4 wards selected from 10 wards in the local government, giving a total sample size of 100 respondents. The results show that the main constraint in the practice of both border planting and shifting cultivation is land. This makes the practice of “taungya system” very difficult for most of the women. Meanwhile, the only constraint to the practicing of alley cropping is the shade the tree casts on the crop when it is matured,
    while the practice of grazing is hindered by the diseases that attack the livestock. About 16% of the respondents perceived agroforestry benefit is low, 69% belongs to the medium perception while 15% perceived agroforestry has high benefits. The results indicate that some are engaged in both farming and non-farming activities for livelihood.

  • Competition and natural mortality in two mixed sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) dominated stands.

    Petre, M., Nicolescu, V.N., Ghirda, B.

    Two 25-year old mixed stands including sessile oak and hornbeam or Hungarian oak were taken into account for studying the role of competition and subsequent natural mortality in sessile oak-dominated stands. Observations of health state and measurements of diameter at breast height of all trees in two control plots established in the two stands were carried out annually between 2004 and 2011. The main results of this research works are as follows: i) The rate of mortality was more important in case of sessile oak trees than of hornbeam or Hungarian oak. Consequently, the species composition has changed in favour of less light-demanding but more competitive tree species; ii) The majority of dead trees in all tree species were of small sizes (diameters) so the mean diameter has grown continuously since 2004; iii) The basal area has also continuously grown between 2004 and 2011; iv) The initial thickest sessile oak trees had shown the most important diameter growth so they should be used when selecting and marking potential final crop trees; v) The thick and tall hornbeam trees should be extracted by silvicultural interventions while the smaller hornbeam individuals should be kept as understory trees; vi) The large diameter Hungarian oak trees should be kept under control on favourable sites (with fertile and heavy soils), where they can represent a real threat to sessile oak trees.

  • From planning to management: the necessary simplification of forest management.

    Martínez de Anguita, P., Iriarte, L., Buendía, M.

    Currently, the Forestry Management Plans are a direct competence of the Spanish Autonomous Communities. Instructions for Public Forest Management, in place since 1970, are the instrument valid statewide for writing forest management plans, although these were primarily designed to measure the stumpage, the main forest product from the forest years ago, as well as to plan its extraction. Among other factors, the high cost of traditional forest inventories, based on data obtained from inventory plots, have prevented the proliferation of management projects. The aim of this article is to review the current situation of forest management models, to analyze the main criticisms of such models and to propose alternatives to facilitate and extend sustainable forest management by the Spanish territory. This paper shows as a result, a number of reasons in favor of simplifying the current instructions, giving a greater role to the management, to the detriment of planning. We conclude that in the event that some new instructions for forest management are proposed, they should be radically different in its purpose, design and shape than the current ones.

  • Actors in rural territorial development: relevant elements and knowledge networks of livestock extension in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Cuevas-Reyes, V., Baca del Moral, J., Sánchez Gómez, J.

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the problems faced by livestock experts in Sinaloa, their knowledge networks and relevant actors within the extension program to develop efficient mechanisms for participation of the extension under a regional approach. Simple stratified sampling was used and the implementation of a survey of livestock extension. The network identification was performed with the software Keyplayer 2. For characterization of technicians and, attempting to explain the relationship between the different variables used Student t-statistics and chi-square. The problems of the extension were: i) inadequate wages ii) delays payment of wages, iii) low level of integration in the networks of knowledge, iv) commitment to extension of only 50% of their time. Only 3% of the total demand receives technical support. The actors involved in the outreach program are: technical institutions and producers, but they are all separated. In conclusion, the administrative problems negatively impact the work of the extension staff and low linkage exists between the actors, therefore, it requires better management of human capital and improves local knowledge networks for livestock development in Sinaloa territorial.

  • Possibilities for sustainable development of oil palm cultivation in Mexico: experiences and challenges.

    Arias, N.A., Mata, B., González, M.V., Aguilar, J.

    As part of the research entitled, “Local innovations: Sustainable Development and social articulation technology diffusion with oil palm growers in Mexico”, addressed the issue of the sustainability of the production of palm oil and its relationship with local innovation, referred to this type of innovation, based on local knowledge, is environmentally friendly, subject to local resources and a socio-cultural context, thereby complying with the principles of social, economic and environmental. In parallel with the identification of innovations and the local innovation system, and to assess the current sustainability of palm production systems in the State of Veracruz (Mexico), a work of field was developed, using sustainability indicators: i) productivity; ii) patterns and frequency of crop rotation; iii) the use of plant protection products; iv) impact on biodiversity; v) household income; vi) the pattern of crop growth and social impacts expressed on food security; and vii) conflicts over land use and job security. The methodology proposed is applicable to the Mexican case, because of the recent inclusion of agribusiness activity, which is new and transformative of the rural reality in the humid tropics of Mexico. In this document is recorded the advances in the analysis of sustainable palm cultivation in Mexico and, taking as a case study the State of Veracruz, which initially shows the options for sustainable development of a activity relatively new (14 years implementation), and its impact on the generation of innovations and changes in the culture of the region under study.