Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    "The cautious man ever regrets the evil present; uses this to prevent future afflictions" (William Shakespeare). Despite the uncertainty with which we began this year 2012, we are even more optimistic, because, thank God, at this time I am writing the introduction to the third number, volume III, year 2012, of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) ". We should be overjoyed by this fact, but if we add, that during the time of the year, as well as publishing the numbers 1 and 2 of SJRD, we have also published three special numbers and, if so, no enough, we plan to publish a fourth special number besides number four of Volume III, before the strokes of New Year´s Eve announce the arrival of 2013, I think that our satisfaction to be full, because we will have amply exceeded the objectives which we began this year.

    As Friedrich Nietzsche aptly commented, "Only he who builds the future has the right to judge the past". In this sense, "Spanish Journal of Rural Development" continues its journey, building future without forgetting the past. We have managed, in a short time, major milestones with our journal. We're magazine type "B", SJRD is indexed in major international databases and, for me, the most important thing, "we went ahead and I have no doubt that the future is ours". "The truth slims and dosen´t breaks, and swims always on the lie like oil on water" ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote of La Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    Victor Ajibola Adekunle

    “Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)” is a very broad platform and a sound avenue for scientists all over the world to disseminate the results of their researches to large international community. It is also an indispensable tool for informational sharing among relevant scientists. Agricultural production and forest resources conservation are faced today with series of limitations that require attention. Rural communities are often neglected; there is hunger and food insecurity. As a result, information are required on agricultural transformation, rural development and biodiversity conservation. The papers in this present issue focussed on some of these challenges and provided some germane remedies to avert them. The articles covered a wide scope of research that contributed immensely to knowledge. The areas covered by the topics include biomass energy, forest conservation, rural development and agricultural production and marketing. The contributors are from different continents y the journal provides a forum and a great opportunity for researchers and all other stakeholders in agriculture, forestry, rural development and ecosystem services to discuss findings that can move the sectors forward.

    To ensure that only articles with good quality are published in SJRD, all manuscripts are usually double-blind peer reviewed by competent and veteran researchers. The calibre of people in the editorial board is a plus to this journal. I hereby congratulate all those with articles in this issue and I also recommend the journal to all researchers, libraries, Institutions, policy makers, industrialists, NGOs and conservationists.

  • Changes in the use of forest resources by gender in a community from the declaration of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, G., Mendoza-Ontiveros, M. M., Monterrubio-Cordero, J.C.

    The protection of Natural Areas prevents populations from the extraction of resources that were originally of traditional and commercial use. This certainly has an effect on the income of domestic units. Thus, in many spaces ecotourism has been promoted as an economic and productive activity seeking to complement the income of local populations. In the last years, several studies related to ecotourism benefits have been undertaken; however, certain topics have remained unexplored. One of these topics is the one related to the restriction on the use of forest resources due to the declaration of Protected Natural Areas (PNA). This work, which was undertaken in the community of Macheros, Mexico, analyses how the restriction on the use of forest resources, as a consequence of the declaration of its PNA and that of the Biosphere Reserve of the Monarch Butterfly, together with the adoption of ecotourism as an economic activity, affected both women and men in their everyday life. The data were obtained through interviews to key informants, non participant observation and transects. Findings suggest that the change in the use of forest resources and the generation of productive activities by local women and men affected differently from a gender perspective. The study also found that the participation in ecotourism activities and the benefit of environmental services payment are assigned for men. It is concluded that the institutions in charge of promoting the care and protection of the reserve did not consider the importance of the use of local resources by gender, which has led to inequalities of the benefits obtained from the payment of environmental services and other activities within the community.

  • Eolic energy and rural development: an analysis for Galicia.

    Simón, X., Copena, D.

    Public policies are directed towards promoting societies where less fossil fuel (European policies intend to increase the production of renewable energy. An example of this is guideline 2001/77/CE of the European Parliament and the Counsel regarding the promotion of power generated from sources of renewable energy within the electricity market) is consumed (at least per unit of produce) and where rural environment recovers socioeconomic activity (The Rural Development Program for Galicia 2007-2013 reflects the importance of this field nowadays.). Even though, eolic energy in Galicia set out fundamentally to improve environmental sustainability, its implementing implied other benefits to all of the economic activity revolving around it. Particularly, eolic energy constituted a good tool to strengthen the rural world where this activity was taking place. This paper, analyzes whether the expansion process of eolic energy in Galicia contributed directly to strengthening rural environment. When it comes to methodology, the authors use a mix between statistical analysis and participative research techniques. The study of the Galician Regulatory Framework for the promotion of Eolic Energy (between 1995 and 2011) and the process of the purchasing rights and duties taken on by landowners and eolic developers or promoters provide us with the key to understanding the results herewith obtained. The principal conclusion of this work is that eolic energy provided the Galician region with the chance to strengthen its rural world economically and socially. Yet the way it designed and, legislated its regulatory framework relegated communities into second place and, in so doing, did away with all chance for improvement.

  • Gender differences in the use of organic materials by arable crop farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Lawal, B.O., Ayoola, O.T., Olawoye, J.E.

    The research was designed to study the use of organic materials by male and female arable crop farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pre-tested and validated interview schedule was developed and used to elicit information from 205 farmers (107 male and 98 female) selected from two Agricultural Development Programme zones of the state using multi-stage random sampling technique. Focus group discussions were held with different groups of female and male farmers. Data were analyzed using frequency, mean and standard deviation and t-test. The results show that poultry manure and crop residues were the most commonly used organic materials by both male and female. Significant gender differences existed in their usage of organic materials. Significant differences were also found between male and female farmers’ perception of the use of organic materials in terms of health hazards and reduction of pests and diseases. Gender division of labour and extent of involvement of males and females in organic materials usage activities show that land preparation, plowing and ridge making were exclusively men’s activities while manure gathering/collection, transportation and manure spreading and application, planting, weeding and marketing were exclusively women’s work. Constraints to use of organic materials for both groups include labour, transportation cost due to bulkiness, long period of decomposition and unavailability in required quantity. It was concluded that male and female farmers have significant role in ensuring better use of sustainable agricultural practices to increase food availability. The paper suggests the need for public-private partnership in organic fertilizer production/distribution and gender sensitive extension service delivery system.

  • Impact of child labour on school attendance: evidence from Bida Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.

    Alfa, A.B., Garba, T., Abdullahi, A.S., AbdulRahim, M.A.

    This study examines the impact of child labour on school attendance. A cross-sectional data set was collected from a sample of 399 children between the ages of 5 and 14 in rural areas of Bida Local Government in Niger State. Non-probability sampling method in the form of purposive sampling technique was applied in selecting the respondents. Logistic regression model was applied in analysing the data set. The findings of this study show that child labour and distance to school hinder school attendance. Also children of educated parents and those that are biological sons and daughters of the household heads attend school more than others. Our results suggest general awareness campaign against child labour and provision of more schools in rural areas, by both government and non-governmental organisations. Furthermore, parents should be encouraged to attain some level of education themselves. Moreover, cash transfer programs targeting the poor households should be pursued to reduce parents’ reliance on child labour and make it possible for children to attend school.

  • Agricultural diversification for rural development. A case study of Ambedkar Nagar District of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Firdaus, G., Ahmad, A.

    Diversification of agriculture is an urgent necessity of the developing nations for their sustainable social and economic development. The objective of the present study is to identify and analyze the pattern, determinants and level of agricultural diversification in Ambedkar Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Various farm and off-farm activities were recognized through household level survey, and the level of diversification was measured with the help of Herfindel method. Result indicates that about 66% of the sampled farming households were doing various non-traditional agricultural activities. Dairy farming (16.68 ± 8.16) was observed to be the most common off-farm activity, and was practiced in almost every sampled village. Among commercial crops menthos and amla cultivation is gaining momentum. With the help of multiple linear regression models various determinants of agriculture diversification was identified. The analysis depicts that income level, size of land holdings were inversely related with the level of diversification (p< 0.05). Whereas, the availability of irrigation, market facility and road connectivity were shown strong positive relationship (p<0.01). The study concludes enterprise diversification especially increasing involvement of farmers in various off-farm activities may be helpful in reducing farm income variability through generating employment opportunities throughout the year.

  • Local development in the inner rural of Northwest Iberian Peninsula – the contribute of common property through the eyes of stakeholders.

    Lopes, J., Cristovão, A., Díaz-Maroto, I.J.

    Commonlands occupy approximately 1 million ha in NW Iberian Peninsula with high average areas (500 ha in north Portugal and 200 ha in Galicia). This work aims to determine the potentialities of the contribution of Iberian Peninsula commonlands to rural and local development, using Participatory Rural Appraisal. The most important contribution of communal lands is related to the environmental aspects. The prominence given by the stakeholders to environmental aspects may indicate that global appreciation is mainly due to the potential of natural resources as a wealth source, while economic and social aspects are more independent of the communities’ power and will.

  • Situation cocoa producers in the province of Los Ríos, Ecuador.

    Morales, F.L., Carrillo, M.D., Ferreira, J.A.

    The low productivity obtained in small cocoa farms in Los Rios, Ecuador is because they are old orchards, without any technification especially when it produced the Nacional cocoa type. In the case of the CCN-51 variety, it has higher productivity because it is grown mostly as monoculture in large plantations where appropriates management practices are used. On the other hand, issues concerned to trade of cocoa directly affect the income of the small producers especially due the presence of the “intermediary” in the trade chain (farmer -exporter) resulting in low economic benefits for the farmer. The objective of this work was to study, analyze and discuss the current situation of cocoa producing farms regarded to management, production and trade in this province. It was concluded that the presence of intermediaries in the cocoa trade affect the economy of the small grower because it impossibilities the chance of invest in improving their orchards. It was also found that it is vital that the help from the government efficiently reaches the farmers of Nacional cocoa by strengthening the exchange system of technology and by implementing a public and efficient rural extension system.

  • Establishing protected areas in the Srebrenica–Milici Region.

    Ioras, F., Dautbasic, M., Ballian D.

    In this paper is presented a review of various implementation issues that will need to be addressed in the Srebrenica – Milici of Bosnia Herzegovina in order to establish a Protected Area (PA). For each identified issue, a summary of what it is currently known and possible key gaps that warrant additional research is provided. The document begins with a brief review of fundamental design concepts to provide context for the specific implementation issues that follow. In the final section, the authors review information sources and discuss options for how the required research might be conducted to make a durable case for establishing a PA around Srebrenica.