Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    The uncertainty with which we began this new year, at least so far, is clearing. Therefore, we must remain optimistic, because, thank God, I am now writing the introduction of the second number, volume III, 2012, of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)". Now, this fact alone gives us great satisfaction, but if so, we add, that during the time of the year and publishes SJRD number 1, we have also published two special issues and a monograph of our journal, I humbly, to our satisfaction to be full.

    The time is passing and "Spanish Journal of Rural Development", continues its journey. On the other hand, we have the journal indexed in impotents and new international databases, such as, Forest Science Database, e-JOURNALS.ORG e International Directory Journals. All this is another step forward, as in space as in reality, as SJRD gradually becomes established, but with a very solid foundation within the complicated world of international scientific publications. "It's better to be praised of the few wises who scoffed at the many fools" ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    Carlos J. Álvarez

    As presentation of this new issue of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development", of the Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU) I consider important to highlight the interest thereof, for the field of specialty, of "projects, environment and territory" Despite the many questions that can be opened on which are the projects that are covered or how many types of projects exist, environmental considerations from the perspective of sustainability, or territory, i.e. the space where we carry out our activity, the journal has made contributions in all of them.

    From my position in the Department of Agroforestry Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, and specifically its Doctoral Program, "Engineering for Rural Development", with reference to quality of MEC from 2007 to 2011, and Mention to Excellence 2011-2014, and specifically with one of the research groups that sustain it, I declare the necessity and opportunity; of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development" as a vehicle for scientific communication.

    The Research Group "Projects and Planning", created in 1998, where I held my research and developed my experience, tackles the research in engineering projects (as in a traditional approach as are offer by the new "project management": uncertainty, risk, organization,...) and rural planning. Therefore relates the design itself with organizational efficiency, safety and health, and sustainability, while references spatial planning approaches, from its agricultural and forestry production, from the environment, from the middle perceptual (landscape), or the conviction of the need to consider the rural population as subject and object of development (Stakeholder management in rural areas). There is also a place for new instrumental techniques for land management, or for systems and techniques that help the decision, sustainability indicators and multicriteria analysis techniques, all within the argument of the system concept, ie , the complexity of our work.

    So, I end up saying the magazine "Spanish Journal of Rural Development," when will serve three years of age, has become a vehicle of transmission in rural development research in the scientific community. The future is ours.

  • Serious and fatal commuting accidents in the agrarian Galician sector in 2004-2010. A comparison with Spain and other productive sectors.

    Lamosa, S., Maciñeiras, J., Barrasa, M.

    In all productive sectors, commuting (“in itinere”) accidents involve a high cost for the society both economically and of human lives. Owing to the importance of agriculture in Galicia, was decided to develop this study from commuting sick leave reports provided by the Health and Safety Galician Institute (ISSGA) and from official statistics of the Employment and Immigration Department (MTIN), to characterize serious and fatal commuting accidents in the agrarian sector and to compare them with other sectors both in Galicia and in Spain. The percentage of commuting accidents in Galicia was slightly lower than in Spain, although the rates of serious and fatal accidents were higher; 95.7% were traffic accidents. These accidents were more frequent in males, with fixed-term contracts and in qualified workers or forest laborers employed in forestry that worked for others. Companies used to have from 10 to 49 employees, worked in forestry or logging and the accidents tended to occur more frequently on Mondays and Wednesdays at 8 AM.

  • Fire intensity and flame characteristics assessment in Mediterranean Forest. Case of Mâamora (NW Morocco).

    Cherki, K., Gmira, N.

    Forest fires are the main disturbance and the most devastating degradation factor that can affect forested areas, especially in the Mediterranean basin when species are highly flammable and climate conditions are marginal. Morocco which is a Mediterranean country is not spared from this phenomenon, thus 3000 ha of forest are burned every year, and this situation is aggravated by the low rate of regeneration and restoration of the unbalanced ecosystems such as the Mâamora which composed by natural stand of cork oak (Quercus suber), and artificial plantations of eucalyptus, acacia, and different pines. The establishment of an effective forest fire preventing management plan requires an intimate knowledge of fire behavior in Mâamora Forest in order to undertake the appropriate measurements in terms of fuel treatment (clearing, pruning and thinning) and forest equipment (roads, fuel break, lookouts tower and water points). Therefore in this study, at first the parametric equations derived from the calculation code FIRETEC were used to estimate the rate of fire spread, the fire intensity was then calculated using Byram’s formula. Furthermore, the Albini model was used to determine flames height, which is an important parameter for assessing the ability of a fire to evolve within trees canopy. Moreover the spatial dimension has been largely taken into account; the use of GIS (Geographic Information System) has permitted the establishment of several maps such as fire intensity, flammability and flame height. The study highlighted that 35% of Mâamora Forest is occupied by highly flammable vegetation. Besides it was shown that the maximum rate of fire spread is about 1.28 m/s (4.6 km/h) fire hazards. In addition the study revealed that areas with a high risk of fire spread cover almost 44% of the forest. As for the flame height, it was emphasized that the maximum height approaching 2 m, and areas vulnerable to crown fires represent about 17%.

  • Criteria for selection of leaders among farmers’ groups for sustainable agricultural development in Delta State, Nigeria.

    Ofuoku, A.U.

    This study was carried out to identify the important criteria used in selection and recruitment of rural leaders for sustainable agricultural development in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly selected 121 farmers from the 3 agricultural zones in Delta State using questionnaire and interview schedule. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the results and analysis of variance was used to test the hypothesis. The results there from, show no significant difference in the criteria used in selection and recruitment of rural leaders in the three agricultural zones. It is concluded that members of farmers’ groups consider socio-economic characteristics, technical skills professional traits and personality and ethical traits while selecting their leaders. It is recommended that extension agents should use the criteria from this study as a guideline for leadership selection for sustainable agriculture and extension agents should have extension–farmers contact for its enhancement.

  • Impact of indigenous technology adoption on output and net return to rural farmers in Osun State, Nigeria.

    Sofoluwe, N.A., Tijani, A.A., Ogundari, K.

    Pests and diseases of crops present a threat to the food security and sustainability of rural farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited rigorous empirical work on the economics of rural based indigenous method exists. This study evaluates the potential impact of development and adoption of indigenous agricultural technology and its attendant effect on net returns among sampled cocoa farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Probit model and Propensity Score Matching were used to analyse the factors influencing its adoption and its impact on net returns among rural farmers. The result revealed a positive and significant effect of adoption of indigenous method on adopter’s income. Our results suggest that adoption of indigenous pest management method would help to increase output of cocoa crop and improve the well being of rural farmers. Our finding further suggests the development of indigenous pest management technology with a view to improving crop production and increasing returns to resourcepoor crop farmers.

  • The socio-economic of small scale women fish processors around Asejire dam of Oyo State.

    Olopade, O.A.

    This study was conducted to assess the socioeconomic characteristic and profitability of small scale fish processing activities around Asejire dam of Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires from all forty one women fish processors in the three fishing villages ground Asejire dam. Descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings from the study revealed that majority of fish processors were middle age (65.9%) and they are married (85.4%).A low level of education was observed among the respondents as 51.2% had no formal education. The study also revealed that most of fish processors (75.6%) had fish processing experience of 6-15 years, about 48.9% of the women involved in the fish processing inherited the business from their family while 36.6% of the respondents were employed to do the job. Commonly processed fish species in the study area were Clarias gariepinus (26.9%), Gymnarchus niloticus (22.5%), Mormyrus spp. (19.9%), Chrysichthys spp. (17.9%)and Tilapia spp.(12.8%). All the fish processors used simple traditional facilities such as cut-away empty oil drum and firewood for their fish smoking. The major occupational hazards reported by the respondents were skin rashes, redness or swelling of the eye. Personal savings formed the main capital invested on the business and the average net income per week from fish smoking by the women fish processors was N 35,750.00 while the gross margin was N 94, 270.73 per week. (N= Naira, Nigeria currency) The gross margin and net income per week have positive value indicating that fish smoking in the study area is profitable generally. Some recommendations were made on how to improve small scale processing activities in the study area.

  • Environmental security in post war Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Ioras, F., Dautbasic, M., Ratnasingam, J., Ballian, D.

    The civil war of 1992-1996 caused great environmental damage in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Environmental health of post-conflict regions is often considered a secondary issue, however this will receive increased attention as political and economic development proceeds. There are several reasons why the ecological condition of a postconflict area is, on the contrary, of principal concern, including the limitations presented by damaged ecosystems, the health threats posed by environmental harm, and the prospect that co-operation towards environmental policymaking can act as a platform for further conciliatory efforts. This paper assesses the impact on the ecology that the 1990 Bosnian war had and offers a brief introduction to environmental security issues and the challenges faced by Bosnia Herzegovina.

  • Studies on vegetation analysis of the afforested bank of Manasbal Lake, Kashmir-India.

    Wani, N.R., Mughal, A. H., Asif, S.

    The study was carried out on the North-Western afforested bank of Manasbal Lake, Kashmir during the year 2009 in order to study the vegetation of the area. The afforestation programme was launched with the aim of preventing the soil erosion and heavy influx of nutrients into the lake which otherwise causes heavy growth of aquatic biomass in the lake causing trouble not only to the fish flora but also to navigation. Restoration of pristine glory of lake is of paramount importance in the tourist industry of Kashmir. After survey of the entire area quadrats of different sizes, eight each for trees, shrubs and herbs were laid for vegetation analysis. During the course of study fourteen species of trees, five species of shrubs and twenty nine herbaceous species were recorded. Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. was found to be the dominant species in terms of density (9.0/m2), frequency (100%) , abundance (9.0) . Among shrubs, Rosa foetida Herrm.(2.50) was the abundant species while, Cytisus scoparius Linn. excelled in terms of density (0.87/m2) and frequency (75%). Tulipa stellata Hook. was dense (12.25/m2) and frequent (100%) among all the herbaceous species but Cynodon dactylon Pers. was most abundant (20.37).

  • An assessment of the potential livelihood opportunity in sachet water vending in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

    Oruonye, E.D.

    The production and sales of sachet water presently plays a major role in the provision of drinkable water and employment opportunities to many different people in different parts of Nigeria. Most studies on sachet water dwells on the quality aspect and the menace of poor disposal of sachet water bags. This study dwells on the livelihood aspect of sachet water vending in urban areas of Nigeria with special reference to Jalingo Metropolis and ways that can improve the services offered by sachet-water vendors that can enable the entrepreneurs to positively contribute to national goals of self-reliance and reduction of poverty. The survey design method which involves the use of interview schedule was used in collecting data for the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data collected. The study reveals that the average income from sachet water vending is about N19,500 (US$130) monthly which is above the national minimum wage of N18,500 (US$123.3) recently approved by the Nigerian Government. The result of the study shows that sachet water vending provides very important livelihood opportunities that have been neglected in the study area especially by majority of the unemployed adults. Most of those engaged in sachet water vending are young people who are less than 18 years of age. The study findings shows that most of those engaged in sachet water vending have been able to accomplish meaningful welfare projects for themselves ranging from payment of marriage dowries, building of houses, purchase of motorcycles among other things. This study recommends the need to develop cheap water treatment instruments that will help to improve the quality of sachet water. Also, young unemployed adults should be encouraged to take to sachet water vending even as a temporary means of earning a living instead of staying idle, searching for white collar jobs that do not exist.