Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    The beginning of each year is often a reason of uncertainty. It´s true, but I want to be positive and I´ll think that to a large extent, the future depends on the past and, of course, the present. On this occasion going to let me start my introduction with a brief poetry.

    A year is twelve months,
    twelve were also the apostles.
    January is cold and rigorous, but
    December is cheerful and majestic.

    A year has four seasons,
    there are four issues of our journal.
    We have already published two volumes
    and our goal is in sight.

    In these moments of hope, our journal "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)" continues his career with the publication of Issue 1, Volume III, 2012. What is a step forward within a year that I expect to be very fruitful, because "Spanish Journal of Rural Development" is not a simple project, is a reality. Thank God we are not mistaken as "Fortunate he whom the heaven gave a piece of bread, without obligation to thank fits another at the same heaven" ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    Pablo Vila Lameiro

    We’re in 2012 beginning, and the “Communication Society” where we live presents a recognized problem. Resources are scarce and will be lower in next times. All predictions say that if yesteryear economic status getting back is desired, budget reductions must be present everywhere.

    This situation presents a black social panorama. However, this situation is equivalent in the academic, and investigator scopes. If it is possible, the scientific journals suffer the same problems but with worse consequences. But diverse initiatives are more frequent. The patronage, so positive and efficient along several centuries in the Old Europe, resurges with power. At this moment, private supports allow the subsistence of investigators, investigation groups, and investigation topics that, in other case, would be absorbed by the vortex of “there’s no finance“. Sometimes, that support is from social lead, through organized normal people that request as well moral as economic help. This work provides resources and press Administrations to not giving up scientific activities with a great interest for the community.

    Sometimes, the initiatives drive to the nowadays “so important” social nets. These nets allow positive uses as the efforts to achieve that each taxpayer were able to require that a part of their taxes goes to a particular goal. Until now, and each time more justified, the most frequent appointment were driven to religious communities. Then, the taxpayer may be able to select not only one destiny, and manage more percentage and more possibilities as the investigation support. Politician repeat once and another time, automated, and frequently without consciousness of their words, that investigation is a fundamental point in their acts. Society only claims that this promise becomes truth, that “people” were who really shows their interest in the investigation, because it’s the value of the society future.

    These Social Nets are only one part of the “Communication Society”, as well as all the scientific journals, independently of their origin, status or impact index. At this moment, emergent journals as Spanish Journal of Rural Development, have to increase their efforts in activities not scientific really. Greater difficulty is not to spread the journal into the scientific community, or is not to achieve that agroforestry or rural investigators in general were interested in the journal. Also, the difficult is not to get works with a high quality to publish the journal with the desired regularity. The real problem is the absence of financial agents. Administrations and also Universities, consider that this is not the moment to support the scientific diffusion, and less emergent as SJ of Rural Development.

    In consequence, we may to feel proud of being part of these great family named Spanish Journal of Rural Development. Our work, issue by issue may allow that the journal follow being published and diffusing works so interesting as well the current Number 1 of the Volume III, as the past and, surely, future editions. God (and financing) save the scientific journals (SJRD particularly).

  • Urban microfinance practices in national capital region, India.

    Surayya, T., Dash, C.

    Microfinance is a tool for inclusive growth, income generating activities, livelihood security and reducing poverty. Geographical area covered for the study was Najafgarh area, South West Delhi. Inferences and conclusions were drawn based on primary data that were gleaned through field survey. Urban microfinance has not been as pervasive as its rural counter parts. SHG bank linkage model is apt for effective delivery of microfinance service in urban areas. In the study area mean age of sample group is 37.8, years and average size of the household is 4.71. 28.3% of sample women members are illiterate. 54% of the members were encouraged by friends and relatives to tag with SHG. There were 82.2% of SHGs have membership size is 20 and 83% members have availed loan. 17% of loans were utilised for investing in microenterprise or business expansion. Average annual return per group is Rs.5774, that of Rs. 296 per member. Average annual income and expenditure were Rs. 70144 and Rs. 60789, respectively per household and mean savings per household is Rs. 9346. About 94 percent of members have acquired sundry asset and 91 percent of the members satisfied with the services of the facilitating NGO, MYRDO.

  • Almería, Lan of wines?

    Uribe, J., de Pablo, J., Bonilla, J.J.

    Andalusia has a large wine culture after a millenarian tradition of grape growing and winemaking, focused towards producing quality wines. There is a wide variety of wines in Andalusia, classified according to their characteristics, well within table wines enhance local wines, that acquire certain quality level of protection intermediate between the common wine and quality wines produced in a particular region, that improve the traditional areas wine producing, and which quality is certified. This type of wine is showing a great interest in producers, traders and consumers, occupying an important place in the market for its good quality/price. The paper studies the wine industry in the province of Almería, dealing and comparing the information with the data of Andalusia. Finally, we have made a PEST, SWOT, DIAMOND and FIVE-FORCE analysis, to focus on the stategy of action, depending on the results.

  • Local development associations: A study of their nature, missions and organizational challenges.

    Cristóvão, A., Baptista, A.

    In the past, in Portugal, as in other European countries, Rural Extension work was promoted by the Ministries of Agriculture, and focused on the farming community. Today, this work is performed by a constellation of organizations, mostly private or nonprofit ones. Besides, in the early 90’s, the EU promoted LEADER Initiative. Presently there are 53 LEADER regions established in Portugal each one being managed by a Local Development Association (LDA) and animated by a Local Action Group (LAG). These Associations are local networks or partnerships, involving different actors and sectors. Their activities aim at “animating” rural territories, diversifying the economy and promoting revitalization initiatives. They represent one of the new faces of Rural Extension work in Europe, more decentralized, with a wider focus, base on multidisciplinary teams. In this paper we present the results of a study of 17 Portuguese LDAs. We gathered information produced under the Q3 Project on each LDA: Reports of Organizational Assessment; qualitative interviews; and final evaluation surveys completed by consultants, technicians and directors. This information was further complemented through document analysis. The study presents elements about the profile, missions, objective and activities developed by these organizations, and identifies the major organizational problems they face, particularly in respect to its management and sustainability. In general, the diagnosis of the LDAs revealed some major weaknesses, especially: lack or failure in setting a strategy; poor leadership; lack of financial sustainability; gaps in human resources; organizational weaknesses, poor communication and others.

  • Wood discolouration in relation to wound size in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees subject to artificial pruning.

    Sandi, M., Sandi, W., Nicolescu, V.N.

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is considered as having a good potential for natural pruning. This is especially the case of dense stands whereas in less dense stands, as well as plantations established at spacing over 2 x 2 m, artificial pruning, sometimes considered only as complementary to the natural one, is necessary to produce knotfree wood, with potential end-uses in furniture or lumber industry. In this respect the paper emphasizes the results of a research project carried out in two privately owned sub-compartments (no. 81B% and 81E), planted back in 1997 (81B%) and 2004 (81E) respectively, with northern red oak as the dominant species. The project deals with the wood discolouration of northern red oak trees subject to artificial pruning of their lower branches of variable sizes. The main outputs of the project can be summarized as follows: A. The size (length) of discoloured wood depends on the size of branch removed by pruning. The size level of 3 cm can be considered as the threshold for a quick closure of pruning wounds and avoidance (or reduction) of risk infections. B. No wood discolouration has been detected above the pruning cut; the only area showing this defect was located exclusively under the pruning cut, as a prolongation of various lengths of the part of branch removed by pruning towards the pith. C. In all cases the wood layers (growth rings) formed after artificial pruning outside the pruning cut area as a result of cambium activity are 100% free of defects.

  • Youth participation in rural development: The way forward.

    Nlerum, F.E., Okorie, N.U.

    This study determined the extent of youth participation in rural development activities in Emohua rural communities of Rivers State, Nigeria. The questionnaire which was randomly distributed was used in eliciting data from 56 respondents who were members of youth groups in the area. Data analyses were achieved with frequency, percentage and the linear multiple regression statistics. Results indicated the mean socio-economic characteristics of the respondents to be 24 years for age, 11 years as the duration of time spent in schooling and a net income of N11,689.29 ($99.06). Agricultural sector was the major rural development activity of interest to the respondents with crop production as the highest (25.00%). Relationship between participation index and the respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics yielded a multiple determination of R2=0.555. Consequently, age, marital status, educational level and previous experience in rural development had significant relationship with participation. Insufficient input was the highest (44.54%) constraint to the participants. The study recommends the provision of adequate inputs for a more effective youth participation in rural development activities in the area.

  • Carbon in soils of Montesinho Natural Park, Northeast Portugal: preliminary map-based estimate of its storage and stability.

    Fonseca, F., de Figueirido, T.

    The Montesinho Natural Park, NE Portugal, is a protected area of 75000 hectares, well-known for its natural values. In addition, it provides important ecosystem services, as the contribution to carbon sequestration. The paper aims at contributing to better understand the role of soils in carbon storage and its stability in the Montesinho Natural Park. The Soil Map of NE Portugal was the main information source used in the study specifically that regarding carbon and nitrogen of 14 soil profiles, representing the soil units identified as dominant in Montesinho Natural Park area. Carbon content in 0-30 cm depth was taken as indicator of carbon storage and the corresponding C/N ratio an indicator of its stability. Leptosols and Cambisols are the most represented soil units, occupying 76 and 20% of the Montesinho Natural Park area, respectively. Luvisols and Alisols together represent 2.5% of total area. Cambisols are the ones that store more carbon per unit area (7.2 kg m-2), followed by Leptosols (5.5 kg m-2), Alisols recording the lowest values (2.2 kg m-2). The carbon storage is higher in the higher altitude areas, cold and wet, soils having expressively higher carbon storage where the average annual temperature drops from 12 to 10 ºC and rainfall exceeds 1000 mm. In general, carbon stability in soils follows a similar pattern to carbon storage.

  • Influence of the tree and stand parameters in the wood characterization: Study in natural stands of Quercus robur L. in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Díaz-Maroto, I.J., Vila-Lameiro, P., Vizoso-Arribe. O.

    Wood density (WD) and wood shrinkage (WS) are high wood quality indicators, which are an important index of the dimensional stability of wood and wood products, their influence both wood processing and end use is relevant. The problems in the processing and drying could be caused by many factors because the logs processed tend to have diverse moisture content resulting in a different dimensional performance. Trying to get a future visual classification of the wood, according to its dimensional stability and establishing different drying and transformation process, this study tended to estimate these properties by collecting forest information (Stand parameters) and Tree data (Tree parameters). Different trees of Quercur robur L. were sampled in the North-west of Spain and separated in different groups according to Plot, Tree and Height. The discs were taken at different height levels of the stem from 0.30 m with an interval of 1m, the disc were cut in different cubes to determinate the wood density and wood shrinkage. The collected data in each site have been sorted in 3 blocks (i) Plot (basal area, dominant height, medium height, number of tree per hectares, site index), (ii) Tree (Competence index “BAL and HART”, volume outside and inside bark, diameter at 1.30 meters, diameter at the beginning the first branch, height, taper function), (iii) Height (Relative height and diameter). In every block, the knowledge of the structural variation of some properties (estimate variance components, correlation between properties…) is essential to analyze the collected data. As a result of those data we could confirm that the differences of both properties, WD and WS, are highly significant. The second phase of this work analyzes the variability along the stem of WD and WS. In this paper, we prove that this variability is nonconstant along the stem. We will show how the WD and WS are distributed in the stem and how they vary from tree to tree and to plot to plot related to the stand and tree parameters examined.

  • Spatial distribution of forest fires analysis based on human activities and ecological and biophysical factors-Forest of Mâamora-Morocco.

    Cherki, K., Gmira, N.

    Forest fires are the main disturbance and the degradation factor most devastating that can affect forested areas, especially in the Mediterranean basin when species are highly flammable and climate conditions are marginal. Morocco as a Mediterranean country is not spared from this phenomenon, thus 3000 ha of forest are burned every year, and this situation is aggravated by the low rate of regeneration and restoration of the unbalanced ecosystems such as the Mâamora. To mitigate this situation, the establishment of an effective forest fire management plan requires not only an intimate knowledge of environment but also a perfect analysis of fire phenomenon. Therefore in this study, we focused our diagnosis on the analysis of old fires occurred in the past in Mâamora forest through GIS analysis and some statistical treatments. The study highlithed that human-forest interface areas (roads, villages) have no influence on fires occurrence. Besides It was shown that grazing practiced in a well-balanced way, could play a key role in reducing fire hazards. In addition the study reveals that fuel load of is the major factor that governs both fire ignition and fire spread, this load is closely related to site quality (soil and rainfall).

  • Innovation in the scientific investigations of the term "economic mechanism".

    Bahodirhon, S.

    In economic theory broad spreading has got the notion "mechanism", having double interpretation –as process and as resources of the process. Herewith is absent its clear terminological and notional determination. This reduces the level of theoretical study economic problems, does not allow producing the exact scientific studies contribute the mess in background notions of the economy. The decision of this problem consists in new determination of the notion “mechanism” and correlating it with process that will allow avoid the existing terminological uncertainty of the notion in economic theory. The called on investigation has revealed the additional advantage, consisting in extension of the sphere of the using procession approach and possibility to standardizations main scientific notion of economy.