Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    On behalf of the Editorial Board of “Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)”, I present a new issue of the same, in this case, corresponds to the special issue 2 of Volume II. As I mentioned in the introduction of the introduction of previous special issue, this aspect means, first, that SJRD slowly begins to establish as an international scientific journal and on the other hand, we proceed with the project to publish special issues of different matters, but always, related to rural development of the local communities.

    This issue is composed of a total of 11 articles, carefully selected through a peer review, of all papers presented at “III International Workshop of Yew (Taxus baccata L.). Yew, Culture and Biodiversity” organized by Asociación de Amigos del Tejo y de las Tejedas, Asociación A Morteira, Spanish Journal of Rural Development, University of León and the Ponferrada Council, and held in Ponferrada, 25 and 26 of March 2010.

    And we go forward,..., with new ideas, and the future publication of monograph issues, we are currently working on a monograph on “Trends and opportunities in the marketing of wine” in collaboration with the Juana de Vega Foundation. All this has meant that Spanish Journal of Rural Development go breaking through with an ambitious aim, but very clear from the beginning for us, as it is, occupy a prominent place within the international literature on Rural Development. Thank God, we go forward, despite all the difficulties we have had to deal and not have any strings attached, and in no time we lacked the courage, in the words of Don Quijote to his humble squire Sancho Panza, "The Freedom is one of the most precious gifts given to man to the skies. For freedom and for honor, can and should risk one's life. "

  • Prologue

    Organizing Committee of “III International Workshop of Yew (Taxus baccata L.). Yew, Culture and Biodiversity”

    The United Nations declared 2010 to be the International Year of Biodiversity. It is a celebration of life on earth and of the value of biodiversity for our lives.

    The rapid regression in recent years of natural Taxus sp. populations due to forests fires, climatic change, grazing, and direct human intervention calls for an organised and active strategy to assure their conservation. Regional and national Governments in some countries are organizing several management and conservation plans. However, this is not enough. The setting up of active plans to conserve yew woods and their habitats is essential. In June 2006, a first international conference on Taxus baccata in the Mediterranean area was held in Alcoi (Spain). A second international meeting was held in Olot (Spain) in summer 2008. Several experts, associations and other groups agreed to increase the study and knowledge of Taxus sp in a wider area. New Conferences was taken place in Ponferrada (León council-Spain) under the slogan “Yew, Biodiversity and Culture”. The Iberian Yewtree Friends Association, Leon University, A Morteira, and Ponferrada city Council were working together to organize the III International Workshop of Yew on March 25 and 26, 2010. Conferences, round tables, exhibitions and other events were included.

    One of the key aims of the III International Workshop of Yew in Ponferrada was to establish a multidisciplinary dynamic and reach out to social collectives through a combination of scientific communication and awareness campaigning. The Workshop brought together researchers, natural historians, and other individuals and collectives in its double-edged initiative to combine scientific aims and publicity with parallel activities created for the general public. The success of the event was outstanding, and so too the attendance, both of which indicate the need for the Workshop and its appropriate timing. More than 50 works were presented in the form of speeches, oral or posters.

    This International Workshop hosted one of the most comprehensive technical and scientific overviews to have taken place worldwide of the genus Taxus. The event saw the definitive confirmation of the ecological and cultural importance of this arboreal species not only in Europe, but on a planetary level. To this end, scientists, technicians and naturalists from all over Europe, America and Asia took part.

    The workshop revealed how all species of the genus Taxus (10-12 species, according to the taxonomic data) face similar conservation difficulties: direct anthropic interference; pressure from herbivore; overexploitation to obtain Taxol; and deforestation due to recurring forest fires. Recession in some regions is also caused by the vulnerability of the genus to climate change in marginal populations.

  • Influence of biotic and abiotic factors on natural regeneration of European yew (Taxus baccata L.): A review

    Iszkulo, G.

    This study examines the factors affecting the lack of success in regeneration of natural populations of European yew. Among the numerous local factors that can be important in the existing populations, the lack of reproductive success is most probably due primarily to shading, combined with low temperatures in winter, impact of herbivores, and limitations associated with dioecy. In many cases it seems necessary to apply active protection measures supporting this species within its natural range of distribution. The major recommended actions include fencing of yew populations and thinning of the canopy.

  • Analysis of the phytosociological behaviour of the European yew (Taxus baccata L.) in the northwest of Spain

    Lence, C., Molina, A., Alonso, A., Acedo, C.

    All the releves with Taxus baccata from the northwest phytosociological Spanish database were selected, using the database Iberian and Macaronesian Vegetation Information System (SIVIM). Eight environmental variables associated with them were studied in order to establish the European yew habitat preferences. Multivariate analyses were carried out: the dissimilarity analysis between species couples, Metric MDS analysis (PCoA) and clustering analysis (UPGMA). The results allow to know and group the species that frequently occur with the European yew and to establish a hierarchy of phytosociological associations where this relictic species lives.

  • The yew (Taxus baccata L.) in central region of Portugal -Serra da Estrela sub-region

    Diamantino, J., Silva, A.

    The yew (Taxus baccata L.) has been considered for a long time as a referenced species to the study area. The area covers the Serra da Estrela (Portugal). Nowadays, in this region, the yew population is clearly declining and there isn’t natural regeneration. The estimated spontaneous population is less than fifty individuals distributed sparsely and seldom forming true clusters, indifferent to substrate, in areas with Mediterranean influences but also with Atlantic influences. The ecologic knowledge of the considered population is yet incipient, which doesn’t allow a detailed characterization of the current yew population. The present work aims to describing the yew distribution and the study area, also characterizing the Estrela range. The importance of the main factors that impair the regeneration of populations are also addressed, as well as the definition of the goals on the species management plan. A synthesis of the work achieved since 2008, the beginning of the present project, is also presented. Due to the reduced number of individuals, an active management for the yew population at a regional scale is required. With the establishment of the present management plan, we propose an active strategy concerning the yew individuals, as biological, cultural, esthetic and genetic heritage, keeping in mind an increasing conservation status of this population for the coming generations.

  • A review of the distribution and conservation status of Taxus in the Himalayas, China and Southeast Asia

    Thomas, P.

    The Asian yews have been the subject of intense interest over the last two decades. Their value as a source of raw material for the production of the anticancer drug Taxol has meant that they have been intensively exploited throughout most parts of their range and this has led to increasing concern about their conservation. Uncertainty about the taxonomy and distribution of the taxa involved has made undertaking conservation assessments difficult. This paper gives a brief overview of recent research by the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Kunming Institute of Botany into Asian yews and discusses some of the disparities between current national, regional and global conservation assessments.

  • Vanishing Anti-cancer Yews: A study in West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Nimachow, G., Rawat, J.S., Aka & Monpa community

    The taxol or paclitaxel extracted from the Taxus baccata has great demand worldwide as it is used for the treatment of ovarian cancer, breast cancer and lungs cancer. However, the Taxus is very slow growing, least available and distant. Due to the high demand and incentives there has been reckless exploitation of the plant. Now in many areas its population has reduced substantially. The northern India, a store house of the species, reports 90% reduction of population. Arunachal Pradesh has about 82% of the forest cover and in many places forest is purely virgin without the human interferences. The occurrences of Taxus baccata is reported in several sites of temperate forest of the State and mainly in the West Kameng District. However, the large scale extraction during 1990s has put this resource at the verge of extraction. A phytogeographical survey was conducted in some villages and adjacent forest of West Kameng District in order to ascertain the present status. The survey reveals only dead remnants of the trees with few isolated saplings.

  • Representativeness of the Mexican yew (Taxus globosa Schltdl., Taxaceae) in protected areas in Mesoamerica

    Contreras-Medina, R., Luna-Vega, I., Ramírez-Martínez, J.C.

    Taxus globosa is a gymnosperm inhabiting Mexican and northern Central American temperate forests and considered as threatened by local and international conservancy agencies. Based on herbarium specimens and webworld biodiversity databases, a map of known distribution was generated. Also, its distribution was evaluated in relation to the current systems of Natural Protected Areas at federal level of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras, in order to determine the role of these areas in its conservation and management. This species is under-represented in these areas, because it is recorded only in four of them in Mexico, two in Guatemala, two in Honduras, and none in El Salvador, representing less than 3% of its known distribution. This approach represents an important tool in conservation biology, because it reflects deficiency and absence of representativeness of many species in these federal areas. It is urgent to preserve the remaining cloud forest patches of Mesoamerica, in order to guarantee the existence of this species and others with the same ecological requirements.

  • Conservation status of Taxus globosa in Mexico.

    Soto-Hernández, M, López, J, Vargas-Hernández, J.J., Muñoz-Gutiérrez, L., San Miguel, R.

    Taxus globosa Schtdl. is distributed mainly in Mexico and some places of Central America. In Mexico has been identified 75 populations, most of them with lesser than one hundred individuals each one, the most extensive is in the North East of the country. From twenty nine visited populations, twenty were found in good conservation state. The species growths mainly at the shade of other trees near to waterfalls in North side. The seeds have sub developed embryo and increase the weigh to the North (55 against 36 mg of the centre). Among the populations were found differences in the concentration of Taxol in an average range of 0.0163 to 0.1103 mg g-1 dry weigh foliage. Also were found differences among trees and regions (0.0781 mg in the North against 0.0851 mg g-1 in the centre). It was identified fifty seven individuals with a Taxol content higher than 0.10 mg g-1 (phenotypic value). The female trees had in average more Taxol than male trees (0.0932 against 0.0732 mg g-1 N= 65 and 67). Remarkable individuals by the high content of Taxol were cloned by rooting of cuttings. There was variation in the rooting capacity among clones varying from 8 to 75 %. It is explored the possibility of domestication of the species.

  • Territorial analysis of yewwoods in Castilla y Léon -Spain

    Fernández-Manso, O., Fernández-Manso, A., Santamaría, E., Quintano, C.

    The best yewwoods of the Iberian Peninsula are within the autonomous community of Castilla y León, on the southern of the Cantabrian Mountains in the provinces of Zamora, León, Palencia and Burgos. However, these yewwoods are threatened woodlands that occupying very small extensions, appearing as a botanical relics in the region. Recent publication of Decree 63/2007 of 14 June, by the Junta de Castilla y León autonomous government, by establishing the Protected Flora Catalog of Castilla y León, considers the yew as “preferential treatment specie". This Decree requires also the drafting of a management plan for the specie. To address these plans is necessary to advance on a territorial perspective. In the present work it was undertaken a first approach to the yew-tree forest of Castilla and León from a regional perspective (physical, administrative framework, socioeconomic, protected areas and environmental risks), by also mapping their distribution in 63 locations on a scale of 1:50,000.

  • Approximation to conservation status of Tejedelo of Requejo (Zamora).

    Losada, D.

    Tejedelo of Requejo, located in the province of Zamora, represents one of the most important yew forests in the Iberian Peninsula. That is justified not only in the presence of a great number of yews, but also in the long age and size of the largest trees. Furthermore, its strategic biogeographical location between Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions confers it more floral diversity. This forest is protected by the “Habitats” Directive in the European habitat 9580* “Mediterranean Taxus baccata woods”. The priority nature of this habitat deserves a special care over its conservation in a favourable status. This work aims to evaluate the conservation status of Tejedelo to come in useful to its optimum management.

  • Botanical study and evaluation of population of Teixedal de Burbia (León)

    Núñez, R.

    The yew tree (Taxus baccata, L.) is a tree specie unique among all that inhabit the Iberian Peninsula. Its long life (can be overcome 2000 years), its scarcity (which has resulted in protection in most of our territory), its multiple uses (from the old arches to the modern taxol), the isolation of its populations (normally locked in places with difficult access and a very special microclimate conditions), its great scenic beauty or quality of wood are just some of the aspects that have marked this tree secular relationship with manhood. Yew reality today in the Iberian Peninsula is marked by the uniqueness of places to settle their populations. It's characteristically, in the northwest of our country that these populations settle in places that are or have become 'safe havens climate' for the species, well against extremely cold periods or extremely arid. In the headwaters of Burbia (León, Spain) sits a yew population immersed into a forest with many other species (which always surpasses age) who has suffered some of the typical problems of yew trees (such as lack of regeneration) and also other problems strongly dependent on the location on the northwest of Spain (these could be the risk of open fires or tracks, among others). With the objectives of understanding of the status and characteristics of these yew tree forest, and define and refine their main conservation problems, and in the spirit of 'know to value', comes out this work.

  • Taxoids extraction and quantification by HPLC in leaves in situ and in induced callus in vitro of Taxus globosa Schlecht.

    Barrales, H.J., Soto, R.M., Ramos, A.C., Trejo, L.I., Martínez, M., Ramírez, M.E., San Miguel, R., Luna, G.R., López, J..

    Taxoids are poly oxygenated diterpenic protoalkaloids present in the bark and leaves of T. globosa. Taxol is an effective chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer, lung and ovary. The objectives of this research were: to induce callus from explants of leaves, improve protocols for the extraction, identification and quantification of three taxoids: taxol, cephalomannine and 10-deacetyl baccatin from leaves in situ from a nursery and from a callus cell line producing high content of taxoids. It was started and efficient in vitro culture of callus, two extractions methods were performed at room temperature with different solvents. It was analyzed two chromatographic methods: thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography to do the phytochemical characterization of the leaves and calluses. The percentage of callus induction with picloram and polyvinylpyrrolidone; picloram and naphthaleneacetic acid; and naphthaleneacetic acid was 90, 70 and 50% respectively. The contents of taxol and 10-deacetyl baccatin in extracts of calluses were higher than cephalomannine. Taxoid contents in the calluses were higher than those of the leaves.