Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    Fray Luis de Leon was a religious, humanist and XVI century of Augustinian professor who studied at the University of Salamanca and ended up teaching classes from one of his chair. Even San Juan de la Cruz himself was his student. He was in prison for translating some books that were not well seen, but this did not stop her teaching career continued active and progressing. Complaints, more motivated by jealousy and quarrels than anything else, caused the Inquisition opened a process against him which lasted 5 years in which he was imprisoned and after which he was finally acquitted. Returning to his chair after those 5 years of absence, began his class with the phrase: "As we said yesterday...".

    Well, "As we said yesterday..." in these uncertain times, our journal "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)" continues its way with the publication of Issue 4, Volume II, 2011. As I said in previous issues, unfortunately, we engaged in a time of a severe shortage of research funds and, consequently, to publish the results thereof. Therefore, from the Editorial Board of SJRD, thanks to their selfless work, we continue on, in addition to the growing aim, because we strongly believe in this project.

    The publication of this issue, is another step forward in our goal of achieving a quality journal, as nationally as internationally. We have published in two years, a total of 12 numbers and going ahead with new projects (special issues dedicated to congresses, scientific conferences,..., special issues, in particular, by the end of this year we will published our first monograph dedicates the latest developments in the different techniques of viticulture and enology, increasing the number of exchanges and collaboration with other scientific journals, including SJRD in new international databases, ...).

    Each day that passes I am more convinced that all people that one day believed in this project and launched "Spanish Journal of Rural Development", thank God we are not mistaken because "The desires are fed with hope" and "It is better to be praised of the few wises than teased the many fools" ("The ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    Ignacio J. Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo

    (To whom it may concern,…)

    Dear readers of "Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)", taking advantage of that the publication of this issue, is the second anniversary of our magazine, I have been obliged to write this prologue to speak very little of the past, unfortunately something more of the present and mainly of the future.

    Well, I think of the past, there in no need the words, I'd prefer to stay with the facts. As mentioned in the introduction, in two years, we have published a total of 12 numbers and going ahead with new projects. We have achieveded agreements on exchange and collaboration with thirty scientific journals and we have been indexed to SJRD, in databases of scientific journals, as important as AGRIS-FAO, CABI: CAB Abstracts; Copernikus, Dialnet, EBSCO, Google Scholar; ICYT; Latindex, Ulrich's, Scopus,... In addition to the vertiginous increase in the number of subscribers, as nationally as internationally, such as the University of Minneapolis.

    All this, despite nowadays, where the shortage of research funds and, therefore, the situation in order to publish the results of it is dramatic. As an example, I have dared to include in this prologue a paragraph where was related the causes refusal of a research project, says:

    "This subproject is framed in a coordinated project whose ultimate aim is the study of the use of certain wood as forbarrel industry as for other potential uses in the food industry. Many of the objectives of this subproject, in particular concerning the Galician chestnut and oak, have been studied in another research project of the same research group, generating important scientific information. The novelty of this subproject would be in the acacia and cherry (Allthough still are not used in cooperage), focusing mainly on aspects related to the assessment and state of the stands and their physical-mechanical characteristics related to the cooperage. Other aspects of the project related to the ecology and biology of the species are not totally justified within a research proposal on the suitability of wood for wine and other uses in the food industry. The proposal has not achieved sufficient priority to be funded. "

    Well, I just wanted to comment that when the previous paragraph, it says "generating an important scientific information" refers to the reading of a doctoral thesis, obtaining a Diploma of Advanced Studies, to conduct a Master's project, the publication of 6 articles indexed in journals with important impact factor, to the publication of a book chapter in an international publisher. Not to mention the awards and prizes obtained this research work, as important as the Prize HG & T Agaxet and the Dagda medal in Category R & D and Training in the XIII Gala Tourism and Gastronomy in Galicia. In addition to its media coverage in all media.

    To the author of this prologue, this situation, it only raises, in addition a deep sadness, a series of questions by way of reflection: 1) What is needed in our country to continue researching?, 2) Really, is important for somebody in our country do competitive research?, 3) can a country like not to invest in research just like that?.

    Well, finally, I will talk about the future, for it, what better way to start the following phrase of Akio Morita, Japanese physicist and businessman, entreprising and innovative by nature, co-founder of Sony and for many years identified with technological and business progress inJapan: "Of course we have to make a profit, but must be long term, not just short term, and that means we must continue investing in research and development." And, says a famous proverb: "A word to the wise is enough."

    In this sense, the selfless work of several people has ensured that the uncertain future of a project to launch the publication of a scientific journal of quality in these times, has gone from a dream to become a reality. In addition the back difficulties and, of course, the future difficulties, have been able to continue forward with the growing spirit, driven by a project in which we firmly believe.

    Despite everything (several difficulties, obstacles, lack of support, lack of recognition,...) and all (envy, slander,...), "The future is ours", as my friend rightly Carlos, why, if there is something different about men is their freedom to work in what they believe firmly: "The free man is he who is not afraid to go to the end of his thought" (Leon Blum).

  • Monitoring of natural regeneration in stands of Quercus robur L. in Galicia by Computer Aided Design (CAD) programs and Digital Photography

    Díaz-Maroto, I.J., Vila-Lameiro, P., Vizoso-Arribe, O., Melicharová, L., Sylvain, T.

    In this work, the monitoring of the natural regeneration in stands of Quercus robur L. has been studied. These stands are localized in the following areas: 1) Natural Park “Fragas do Eume” in province of A Coruña, 2) Fraga das Saímas in Lugo, 3) San Fitoiro oak forest in Lugo and 4) Taboadelo oak forest in Pontevedra. After a stratification of the stands by its canopy opening -clearing, semi-closed canopy and closed canopy, the analysis of regeneration in areas of closed and semi-closed canopy has been quantified by CAD and digital photography. Q. robur stands are the climax forest that should cover most of Galicia. However, its location in deep soil and with little slopes, and the high quality of its wood have resulted in widespread loss of what once must have been a continuous surface of deciduous hardwood forests in most part of Central and Western Europe (Oria de Rueda, 1999). Today, most of its potential area is occupied by other fast-growing tree species, in addition to large pastures and land dedicated to farming. Despite all this, the area now covered by deciduous hardwood forests in Galicia has increased significantly. This species occupies in Galicia 187,789 hectares according to IFN3 data, representing 13.36% of the forested area, and 33.39% of the area occupied by hardwoods. In Lugo, it is noteworthy that nearly 27% of the forest surface corresponds to Q. robur stands, representing over 54% of the area occupied by hardwoods (Xunta de Galicia, 2001). The regeneration of Q. robur seed thus appears rather uncertain, since it is random and discontinuous, and although the formation of the acorn is annual, abundant harvests generally occur with time intervals of 3-5 years, which can reach 10. Mast year apparently to a large extent driven by climate, but also relates that after a year of good harvest the tree is exhausted and needs a rest period to accumulate reserves for a new fruit (Fernández, 1994). In Galicia, regular or semiregular many mature stands have a rich regenerated (regenerated advance), but the total absence of sylvicultural treatments, causes the seedlings die for lack of light (Barrio, 2003).

  • Effect of carbohydrates on Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. micropropagation

    San José, M.C., Corredoira, E., Janeiro, L.V.

    This paper describes the effect of carbohydrates on shoot development and adventitious root formation in two clones of adult origin of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. previously established in vitro. Woody Plant Medium was used during the multiplication stage, supplemented with 0.5 mg / l indole acetic acid, 0.2 to 0.1 mg / l benzyladenine and 0.5 mg / l zeatin. Glucose (111 or 166 mM) or sucrose (58 or 87 mM) were evaluated as carbohydrate source. The chemical nature of the sugar added to the culture medium had a strong influence on the in vitro shoot development. The best results were obtained when glucose (111 mM) was used as the source of carbohydrate. The highest concentration (166 mM) produced signs of hyperhydricity in the shoots. Root formation was also promoted by glucose 111 mM (2%) and indol butiric acid 0.1 mg/l for first seven days. Rooted plants were readily acclimatized to ex vitro conditions with survival percentages higher than 90%.

  • Landscape management in a river basin to achieve the objectives of the WFD in the countryside of Galicia.

    Cuadrado, V., Neira, X.X., Cuesta, T.S.

    The current situation of degradation that riverbanks suffer, the problems of organic pollution of our rivers and the need to offer concrete solutions to these problems to meet the goals we require the Water Framework Directive, has led us to propose methodology to establish an objective model of the river landscape management. This paper describes the methodology and its application to a pilot river basin; The Saá river basin. In this basin we apply all bioengineering techniques proposed in the methodology. With the proposed intervention to quell the majority of problems encountered, although it may be insufficient if not managed degradative certain land uses.

  • Re-imagining forests as multifunctional and sustainable resources for a low carbon rural economy: the potential for forest-based rural development.

    Slee, B.

    This paper explores the need for the re-imagination of forests with respect to their contribution to rural development. This process requires a departure from production-centred thinking to a more holistic vision that recognises the full range of ecosystem services that forests provide. It also requires more effective measurement of the value of forests and the reflection of those values in policy instruments. Realising that vision thus requires a re-imagination of institutions and policies to reward forest owners more effectively for the provision of crucial ecosystem services (including carbon), as well as the stimulation of regional innovation systems which can capture and add value to the linkages between forestry and rural development. In conclusion, in the looming struggle to address global climate change, there is scope for forests to make a much greater contribution to sustainable energy and sustainable products and services. The multiple current difficulties facing the forest sector are greatest in dryland areas where under-management of the forest resource, forest fires and disease are pressing issues. In more temperate maritime climate zones, the transition to new multifunctional roles is generally less challenging, but nonetheless strongly differentiated between production-dominated and amenity-dominated forest management regimes. Addressing climate change and accommodating new values offers enormous scope for repositioning forestry and giving it a new salience in a low carbon world.

  • Analysis of rural household employment structure in northwest Pakistan.

    Jan, I., Hayat, S., Khan, M.A.

    This paper attempts to identify the trends in household employment patterns as well as factors determining household occupational choices in rural northwest Pakistan. A comparative analysis of the employment structure with surveys conducted in 1967-68 and 1986-87 reveals that there has been a major growth in non-farm activities over the past four decades with the share of exclusively farming sector reduced from 31% in 1967-68 to just 8% in 2005-06. Similarly the share of household combing farming with non-farm activities also reduced to 16%. At present, within non-agricultural sector 27% of the households are engaged in business related activities while about 50% find their livelihood in wage-salary sector. This development is caused by a large increase in population as well as shrinking of the employment opportunities in the farming sector. Likewise, results from the multinomial logit model reveal that household size, access number of young household workers, additional working members, and per capita income, are important determinants of a household employment choice. The paper concludes that in order to uplift rural areas, non-farm employment sector may be given due importance in the national development policies.

  • Have you disappeared the reciprocal work in subsistence agriculture? A quantitative analysis of the case of Ecuador

    Vasco, C.

    With data from the Survey on Living Conditions 2005-2006, this research work analyzes the likelihood for Ecuadorian households to take part in community works, to exchange labour with other households, and to use wage labour for agricultural chores. The findings indicate that participation in community works is more likely to occur in indigenous communities where engagement in community issues is stronger. In the case of labour exchange, it is more common among indigenous peoples who are settled in regions with poor road infrastructure and less frequent in regions where commercial agriculture demands high amounts of labour.

  • Challenges and solutions for improving livelihoods of iranian semi-nomads.

    Varmazyari, H., Shabanali Fami, H., Hashemi, S.M., Rad, G.P.

    The main purpose of this study was to explore how different challenges and solutions contributed separately to improving (or exacerbating) semi-nomads’ livelihood in Dishmook District, Iran. A total number of 27 villagers were selected for the study using theoretical sampling. Using grounded theory method, the collected data were analyzed. The study revealed that poverty and natural resources degradation were severe in the area of study. The study, also, revealed that there was not a simple and direct relationship between the semi-nomads' poverty and environmental degradation and both poor and rich individuals were involved in degrading the environment. Finally, two theoretical models explaining how different challenges and solutions contributed separately to improving (or exacerbating) semi-nomads’ livelihood were generated.

  • Potato growers' knowledge of sustainability in Ardabil region of Iran.

    Bagheri, A., Shabanali Fami, H., Razeghi, M.

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of knowledge of potato farmers in terms of numerous dimensions of sustainable agriculture. A descriptive research design was used to collect data. A sample of 140 farmers was selected from Ardabil, Namin and Nir townships. The selected farmers were familiar with traditional sustainable practices, such as application of organic manure, crop rotations, non-chemical pest control, and weed management. However, they recognized that synthesized materials have immediate effect on yield and pests. They were well aware of applying them but not informed about their environmental impacts. Despite the importance of plant residue management, the respondents' knowledge was moderate and not acceptable for a sustainable farming system. In the case of tillage practices, except for practices with obvious impact on soil erosion, there was weak knowledge of essential tillage practices such as low tillage and replacing chisel for moldboard and so on. The result of correlation analysis revealed that respondents' knowledge of sustainability was positively correlated with knowledgebased factors, such as level of education, participation in extension education and studying agricultural publications.