Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.


  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    I have the great pleasure to introduce a new issue of our journal “Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD)”, which continues the second volume for this year 2011. Although, we live in momentsof a severe shortage of funds for research and, consequently, to publish the results of the same, thanks to the selfless work of many people, SJRD, is weathering the growing waves where we have to navigate in the storm every day, hauling down all the sails and let that our boat find your balance between them.

    With the publication of this issue 3 of Volume II, on the one hand, it could state, with a little margin of error, that SJRD has taken another step in our idea of getting an elite international scientific journal. We have published in two years of existence, a total of 10 issues, adding the regular and special issues and on the other hand, we continue forward with new projects (special issues of different themes related to rural development, monographic issues, increasing the exchanges with other journals, including SJRD in new international databases, ...).

    This allows us to make out a very promising horizon, despite the limited financial resources available to us, and thanks to the efforts of all. The diversity and quality of published articles in both the regulated and special numbers is increasing, and the increased number of subscriptions and agreements with various agencies and / or institutions to publish several special theme issues in the future very nearby. That group of "colleagues that one day believed in the future of this project," and launched "Spanish Journal of Rural Development", thanks God we were right, we go forward, despite the storm of each day. We step solid ground and we are erecting of the foundations of a wonderful project. "It would seem, Sancho, that there is not proverb which is not true, because they are all sentences extracted of the same experience, mother of the all sciences". ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha" by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).

  • Prologue

    João Bento

    In the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere we will be enjoying summer time in a few days. In the Mediterranean region the tourist vocation of this landscape will cohabit with eminent forest fire danger. The dimension of wild fire in the region is well known and unfortunately it is not unusual to have to move people from tourist infrastructures in an emergency situation.

    In this region the occurrence of fires is obviously the result of extreme temperature, lack of humidity and wind conditions. However, the frequency and extent of these phenomena can also be explained by social and demographic characteristics, inherent in the applied rural development models. The Mediterranean region has a very rich historical and cultural heritage, as the result of a permanent circulation of so many civilizations, whose influences and features have often overlapped for centuries.

    But the bustling presence of people with their capacity to manage and take care of the landscape has been changing, diverging to a much more seasonal and discontinuous concentration of population and activities both in time and space.

    Land use solutions based on massive patches of forests, with homogeneous specific composition supported on coniferous and industrial species, have already shown how these models may be fragile. The adoption of mechanical and manual operations for scrub control and preventive silviculture are so expensive that the financial efficiency of such techniques is in contradiction with the productivity of these stands.

    For the Mediterranean region it is possible to say that its demographic levels are too high when there is risk of seasonal occurrence of fires and too low when seasonal care and forest maintenance have to be ensured.

    The incidence of so many fires and burnt areas for long years can’t surely be viewed as desirable but the evidence of some natural processes of vegetative regeneration may indicate the basis for more adequate ways to guide the interventions after forest fires.

    Appealing to the use of potential natural vegetation, promoting all the solutions enabling diversity and heterogeneity, adopting cheap methods for fuel control as prescribed burning, increasing and supporting pasturage activities, carrying out biomass harvesting for energy production may be some of the requisites to have in mind, for the success of a harmonious development of the rural landscapes of the Mediterranean region, in order to prepare quieter summers for the future.

  • Participation of char women in Income Generating Activities (IGAs) for maintaining sustainable livelihood in Bangladesh.

    Al-Amin, S., Rahman, M.M., Miah, M.A.M.

    The main purpose of the study was to determine the participation of char women in income generating activities (IGAs) for a sustainable livelihood. Moreover, characteristics of respondent women and relationships between selected characteristics of the respondents with their extent of participation in IGAs were also found out. The fieldwork for the study was carried out in two Upazila (administrative unit) of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during November 2006 to March 2007. Data for the study were collected from 200 randomly selected char women by using interview schedule. Out of five major aspects of IGAs, majority (39.36%) of the char women were involved in homestead vegetable production. The highest proportion (95.5%) of the respondents in the study area had low participation of income generating activities compared to 4.5% having medium participation and nobody of the respondents had high participation in income generating activities to make their livelihood sustainable. Majority of char women were middle aged; can sign only; small family size; marginal farmer; low to medium income; low social participation, agricultural knowledge, organizational participation, cosmopoliteness and extension contact; and no innovativeness category. The relationships between the variables were tested by computing the coefficient of correlation. Social participation, agricultural knowledge, organizational participation, innovativeness, cosmopoliteness, and extension contact of char women had positively correlated with their extent of participation in IGAs for sustainable livelihood. Age, education, family size, farm size and annual income showed no relationship with their participation in IGAs.

  • Impact of fiscal policy failures on sustainable forest management in Nigeria.

    Osemeobo, G.J.

    Fiscal policies are used by the Nigerian government to address economic development. However, these policies experienced sudden changes and created havoc to forestry development. The study evaluated how failed policies exerted negative impacts on sustainable forest management in Nigeria. Data were derived through a questionnaire survey and discussions held with major stakeholders. Results of data analyses revealed that various policy failures collectively contributed in: (i) high rate of dereservation of forests for alternative uses, (ii) massive encroachment into the forest reserves for food production, (iii) fragmentation of forest reserves which has hampered in situ conservation, and (iv) increased illegal activities in constituted forest reserves: logging, hunting and farming. Policy reforms should be anchored on full participation of all stakeholders in forest management and harmonization of various policies in the country.

  • The economic multirationality of the small producer in the rural territories.

    Lugo-Morín, D.R.

    This paper analyzed the economic rationality with which it responds the small producer of the horticultural productive system of the valley of Tepeaca. In order to describe and to understand the rational logic of the small horticultural producer the components of the horticultural system were valued, identifying different rational expressions, product of the territorial dynamics of the valley where the local knowledge and the social networks play an excellent role. The previous thing has made possible a multi-rational individual that is formed from the dynamics of territorial change, the knowledge and the networks.

  • Genetic study of small isolated populations of Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Sub-Mediterranean zone of the Dinarides

    Ballian, D., Mataruga, M.

    The genetic structure of silver fir in small isolated populations in sub-Mediterranean zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia was analysed using biochemical markers. Biochemical markers were used for the analysis: 9 enzyme systems and 16 gene loci, with 11 of them being polymorphic, with 38 alleles in total. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.8125 to 2.0625. Genetic multi loci diversity ranged from 17.8568 to 29.4664, and gene pool diversity ranged from 1.1684 to 1.1958, while actual heterozygosity ranged from 0.1113 to 0.1706. The analysed populations showed inbreeding as indicated by the positive size of the fixation index with low degree of population differentiation and total differentiation (Dj) 0.1468. Based on the obtained results, and also after comparing them with the results from other similar studies, there are indications that small isolated populations of silver fir in the sub-Mediterranean zone have specific genetic structure, although with autochthonous gene fond distinctive for the Western Balkans.

  • Models, driving forces and developmental strategies of Chinese homestead garden ecosystems.

    Miao, Z., Meng, Q., Miao, Z.

    This paper reviewed the history, types and models, driving forces and developmental strategies of Chinese homestead garden ecosystems. This study also analyzed ecological, economic and social benefits of numerous case studies of home garden ecosystems in China. The research indicated that the homestead garden ecosystems took a crucial part in improving sustainability of rural ecosystems, rural productivity and farmer’s income. Driving forces of Chinese homestead garden ecosystems included family use, market demands, landscape aesthetics, intensive management practices, incentive and subsides policies from government. The priority to improve the household garden ecosystems is to optimize components and structure, and to ameliorate function and services of the ecosystems according to family use, market demands, local resource availability and social culture.

  • Comparative advantages of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa in sugar manufacturing over other parts of Pakistan.

    Aurangzeb, M.

    This paper seeks to identify and estimate the comparative advantages of the Khyber Pukhtunkhwa of Pakistan in sugar manufacturing over other parts of the country. The study shows that the Domestic Resource Cost, Nominal Protection Coefficient, and the cost of sugarcane for the cane sugar production of the Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are lower than that in the Punjab and Sindh Provinces’. The sugar industry in the Khyber Pukhtunkhwa is unique in a sense that this is the only province of the country where both sugarcane and sugar beet are cultivated and processed in the same Sugar Mills. As a result the overhead cost per unit of sugar out put is reduced which increases the profit margin of the sugar producer. Cultivation of sugar beet has not only benefited growers, who can use their land to grow sugarcane in a given year or sugar beet with other Kharif crops and get the benefits of these harvesting but also the sugar producers, who utilize their installed capacity for cane sugar production in winter and beet sugar production in summer. The encouragement of sugar manufacturing in the Khyber Pukhtunkhwa would be helpful for all the concerned and will also help in the increase in the supply of sugar and government revenue.

  • Productivity and yield components of corn fertilized with different sources and levels of zinc.

    Nacke, H., Gonçalves Junior, A. C., Stangarlin, J. R., Schwantes, D., Strey, L., Nava, I.A.

    Zinc (Zn) can be considered the primal micronutrient for the corn culture (Zea mays L.), being, its use, widespread in Brazil and the world, however, studies correlating levels and sources of this element are needed to provide better recommendations for each region and soil type, and thus enable the better use of fertilizers on farms. The objective of this study it was evaluate the effect of different sources and levels of Zn applied in corn for the western region of Paraná. This way, it was studied the behavior of eight sources and four levels of Zn on the productivity, yield components and leaf contents of Zn of corn plants in a Rhodic Eutrudox. Significant differences among the sources and levels in the availability of Zn for plants and among levels for productivity was founded. For yield components the treatments had no effect. This way, under the experiment conditions, the fertilization with Zn provides increase of the income for the corn crop, however, levels greater than 4.0 kg ha-1 are not justified.

  • FSC forest certification in productive forests of small-medium forest owners in the north of Spain from the study of several cases of different forest areas dominated by plantations in Galicia.

    López, P., Calvo, L.

    FSC Spain develops the pilot project Bringing the FSC forest certification to smallholders, in collaboration with Biodiversity Foundation and NEPCon, in order to promote FSC certification in the productive forests of small-medium holders in the north of Spain, trying, on the one hand, to achieve the certification of forest management of these areas and, on the other hand, to introduce new forms of certification in which forestry enterprises integrate as able to supply in the future forest certification for smallholders. The project focuses on the case studies of different forest located in productive areas of the province of Lugo and logging companies which carry out normally jobs in these areas. In the forest the predominant plantations are Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. within normal figures of property in Galicia. In addition to further develop new forms of certification (SmartLogging) attempting to gain greater involvement in forest management of owners / managers and forestry companies, there is agreement that, recognizing the demands and rigor of FSC system, the certification of plantations can be possible and the access to it and its maintenance could lead to a real improvement in forest management.