Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    On behalf of the Editorial Board, I present a new issue of Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD), which also completes the first volume of our journal. In this sense, we already had occasion to celebrate our first anniversary, thanks to the collaboration agreement signed with the Lugo Council to promote the program Lugo 10.

    And we go forward with new projects (publication of special issues, future publication of monographic issues,...). This, also has meant that SJRD, and has opened a small gap at the end of the tunnel, but a glimpse of a promising horizon. Proof of this, they are the variety and quality of the article have been included in this issue of the journal. The group of “adventurers”  who put in operation Spanish Journal of Rural Development, thank God, we go ahead and walk on and on land. “The future is hidden behind the men who do” (Anatole France).
     

  • Prologue

    Dalibor Ballian

    As we are reaching the end of the current year, the fourth issue of the ''Spanish Journal of Rural Development'' is just to be ready, and I have the honour to write this prologue. I have been thinking a lot about what to write in this prologue and I decided to write something about biodiversity, since many authors have insisted on it in their scientific papers discussing about ecology, botany, arboriculture, water and sea world, and natural resources management. All of them were published on this journal.

    As it’s known, the United Nations have proclaimed the year 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity with the aim of promoting the protection of natural diversity all over the world. Due to this, it’ll be explained the significance of biodiversity and preservation of natural diversity.

    Research and biodiversity preservation is often a primary goal in all actions related to planning and implementing activities related to rural development, such as forest protection, cultivated or wild plants, and domestic and wild animals. That’s a special activity since it’s product of one of the most important goals of rural development, reflected in sustainable management with natural resources. However, one of the primary aims for biodiversity and its understanding is the implementation of several fundamental researches specifying whether they are researches between or within the species. Morphological or genetic researches are often conducted within the species with the objective of detecting the existence of differences or not. Obtained the results from those researches, someone published in this journal, the following goal is to create the essential necessary knowledge for planning rural development activities with the implementation of biodiversity active protection.

    As it’s known, the rural development, besides many other activities, works with promotion and protection of biodiversity through out the inclusion of institutions, enterprises, and individuals into particular actions. These activities have the aim to promote management sustainability with the minimum losses of biological diversity due to agricultural activities, forestry, and pastures exploitation.

    Perhaps the most significant activities are those that increase on the significance of biodiversity protection for human wellness, as well as to promote economic advantages of biodiversity in the rural development through sustainable exploitation of all available resources. In addition, other significant activities are those focused on the strengthening of new knowledge on danger biodiversity factors, or those techniques and methods that can be used in order to preserve the current biological diversity and to improve it for future generations. Here it has been noted that successful rural development is not possible without constant work on disseminating positive messages about biodiversity protection through the inclusion and share of a much people, especially young people.

  • Forage potential of local maize varieties and the relationship between agronomic traits, yield and nutritional quality.

    Campo, L., Moreno-González, J.

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the morphology seventy-six local maize varieties, (2) to identify local maize varieties with high nutritive value and (2) to determine the degree of association between agronomic traits, dry matter yield (DMY) and nutritive value traits of the stover fraction of the plant. There were three experimental trials in a 9x9 triple lattice with 76 local varieties and 6 commercial hybrids. The dry matter yield was higher in hybrids than in local varieties (14.53 vs 9.21 t/ha) while the nutritional quality, earliness and lodging were higher in local varieties. Local varieties were selected for high DMY “Lagarin”, “Mondariz”, “Mondoñedo” and “Andoain”, all with dry matter yield above 12 t/ha, while the local varieties with higher nutritional value were “Coristanco”, “Monfero”, “Taboada” and “Canicouva”. The digestible organic matter in vitro (DOM) is highly correlated (P <0.001) with the other nutritive value traits, organic matter content, crude protein content, acid detergent fiber content and neutral detergent fiber content, whose correlation coefficients were 0.61, 0.39, -0.91 and -0.68, respectively. The dry matter yield is negatively correlated with digestible organic matter (-0.26), and that local varieties were the earliest had higher digestibilities while later achieved higher yields.
     

  • Edible wild mushrooms harvesting management and user-pays´ fees willingness to pay: The case of the province of Soria

    De Frutos, P.

    The public demand for harvesting of edible wild mushrooms has risen over the last decades and currently affects all forested areas with mycological resources in Spain. The idea of introducing a system of ‘user-pays’ fees has been conceived as a possible ecosystem management strategy. The management problem is that policymakers have not a guidance to mark these fees. Valuing the benefits people derive from harvesting edible wild mushrooms may provide some guidance as to how much people would be willing to pay and may also justify future taxes for on harvesters. The aim of this article was to estimate the willingness to pay of citizens of Soria (Spain) for a harvesting fee using contingent valuation methods. The results show that the current provincial regulation management is effectiveness because the harvester´s willingness to pay is similar to picking fees.

  • Micropropagation of common alder for germplasm conservation.

    San José, M.C., Janeiro, L.V., Corredoira, E.

    Shoot cultures from adult material of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) were established in vitro. Branches from the canopy and stump sprouts were collected from 20-30-year-old trees. Shoots developed from these branches were used to initiate the cultures using Woody Plant Medium supplemented with 2 mg/l benzyadenine and 0.5 mg/l indole acetic acid. The multiplication stage was divided into 3 cycles of 3 weeks each, transferring the shoots to fresh medium at the end of each cycle. Woody Plant Medium was used in this stage supplemented with 0.5 mg/l indole acetic acid, 0.2 mg/l benzyladenine (during the first cycle, 0.1 mg/l for the next two), and 0.5 mg/l zeatin in the 3rd cycle. Shoots (1.5-2 cm) from the multiplication stage were rooted in vitro. Rooting percentages getting up to 75% both in controls and with 0.1 mg/l indole butyric acid, although the presence of auxin increased the speed of root formation.

  • Influence of size and competition on Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii basal growth, and its relationship with closet o nature silviculture.

    Tíscar, P.A., Tíscar, M.A.

    In this study, the influence of tree size and competition on basal area growth is analysed in a Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii population from Sierra de Cazorla (Southeast of Spain). Tree size was defined as a combination of diameter, total height and several measurements of crown dimension. All these parameters were used as independent variables in a Multiple Regression Model, with the basal area growth as response variable. The most significant independent variables were diameter and vertical crown surface, they explained 32.69% of observed growth variability. Competition was measured by means of five indices. Their ability to explain basal growth-competition relationships was explored fitting successive allometric regression models. Distanceindependent indices offered better results. Diameter, vertical crown surface and distance-independent indices would be suitable variables for developing individual-tree models for the species and locality studied. Considering the results, close-to-nature silviculture can be recommended for the management of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii forests, particularly those under private ownership.
     

  • Analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of commercial substrates and comparison with a compost of organic waste

    Brito, L.M., Paiva, A., Reis, M., Ribeiro, H.M.


    For environmental reasons there is a growing pressure to reduce the use of peat as substrate component and to increase the use of waste materials, such as organic wastes that very often go to landfill. In this study the physicochemical characteristics of 16 commercial substrates were compared with those of a compost of the source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, with different periods of maturation, to identify compost constraints as a substrate component and to suggest composting adjustments to achieve more suitable characteristics in the final composts. The main limitations of composts as substrate components include low C/N ratio, low moisture content, high pH and high electrical conductivity values, and very high contents of ammonia, sodium and potassium. These limitations may be minimized by raw materials selection for the composting process with increased C/N ratio and decreased electrical conductivity and maintaining compost moisture content during its maturation phase, to increase remaining organic matter mineralization and ammonia nitrification.

  • Inventory and characterization of the cornicabra (Pistacia terebinthus L.) in El Bierzo (León-España)

    Arias-Fernández, R., Fernández-Manso, A.

    El Bierzo (León – Spain) has an important cornicabra population (Pistacia terebinthus L.) in the North-Western limit of its global distribution. In addition of the ecological and corological importance of this species, it can serve as a rootstock in the cultivation of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) that could be developed as an alternative crop in the most thermophilic areas of the North-Western Iberian Peninsula. This paper presents a comprehensive study of that species. Its main goals are: firstly, to locate and to inventory the main areas of cornicabra populations in El Bierzo; and secondly, to identify and characterize the cornicabra mother plants with good characteristics for obtaining phenotypic quality seed that could be used for pistachio rootstock production. For that reason, the 6 most important cornicabra locations in the study area, totalling an area of 935.68 ha (distributed in four municipalities: Carucedo, Corullón, Sobrado and Benuza) have been inventoried and characterized. From the study of individual specimens within each population, we have chosen the cornicabra plants with outstanding phenotypic characteristics to use them as stock plants in the production of quality seeds to form rootstocks for pistachio cultivation and to promote the conservation and protection of cornicabra populations by the different Spanish Administrations.

  • Transformations of Galician agrarian landscape in the Modern Age

    Sobrado, H.

    The objective of this work is to try to reflect, from an historical perspective, the evolution of the Galician agrarian landscape in the Modern Age (centuries XVI -XVIII) and first half of the XIX, centring us for it in the analysis of the old province of Lugo. In this zone of Galicia, mainly from second half of the XVIII, important transformations in the agrarian system (new introduction of plants, “acortiñamento de agras”, increase of the surface dedicated to meadow and intensification of the breaking up new ground…), they contribute, to a great extent, to form the characteristics of its present agrarian landscape.
     

  • Model for characterization the level of social participation and unrest in the “Montes Vecinales en Mano Común” (MVMC) in Galicia

    Marey-Pérez, M.F., Gómez-Vázquez, I.

    The “Montes Vecinales en Mano Común” (MVMC) have undergone several changes in their property and management, which has meant a insecurity possession. The new uses, mainly energy, demographic changes, the role of Forestry Administration, the presence of private companies, generate conflicts that transcend the boundaries of forest and they got to the public opinion. The social participation provides lots of information about social, economic and environmental aspects related to the management of agroforestry resources in these rural settlements. This paper tries to explain why and in which circumstances the lack of organization and the apathy is produced by the owners, the manage of the resources in a unsustainable way, as well as the role of the community like investors. For this purpose the newspaper library it was resorted to compiling the local and regional news about social aspects: participation and unrest and news obtained were analyzed statistically and spatially. The results show a clear correlation between social participation and conflict and the strong territorial imbalance. Equally several social, economic and environmental variables were related to more or less participation, observing a high passivity in traditional agricultural areas.

  • Analysis and forecast of the availability of raw material for the first transformation sector in Galicia

    Sánchez, J.

    All over the world and any time, the right forestry industry development depends on the existence of suitable forests to provide the needed raw material in time and quality. The current work analyzes the evolution of timber from forest to industry in Galicia. The starting point is the information from the National Forest Inventories, discriminating the results between conifers, broadleaves, and, within these, highlighting the eucalyptus case. With the stocks valued, will be analyzed with the lens of the first transformation timber industries with the greater incomings: pulp, timberboard (different kinds) and sawmills. The conclusion is that the inputs from broadleaves except the eucalyptus are and will be minimum for this sector in the next years. However it’s more acute the availability of enough conifer timber for sawing and timberboard production. The eucalyptus represents the other coin face, with stocks enough to maintain, and even increase, the production of pulp, timberboards (fiber essentially), and sawing. Nevertheless, the sawing industry may do an effort of investment to allow to the sawmills the technological adaptation to saw the Eucalyptus globulus Labill. timber.