Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Joaquín Olona Blasco

    Mejorar las relaciones entre el campo y la ciudad

    Frente a la tradicional polarización entre lo rural y lo urbano, cada vez toma más fuerza la idea de potenciar la complementariedad entre los dos ámbitos con el fin de impulsar el desarrollo del territorio en su conjunto.

    Los problemas de despoblación rural y de desequilibrio espacial, unidos a la necesidad de equiparar las condiciones de vida de los ciudadanos, con independencia de su lugar de residencia, justifican la importancia de las políticas e instrumentos de desarrollo territorial y, en particular, de desarrollo rural.

    La UE concede una importancia creciente al desarrollo económico y social con enfoque territorial. Con el “Libro Verde sobre la Cohesión Territorial”, la Comisión Europea pone un especial énfasis en las relaciones y vinculaciones entre el “campo y la ciudad”. Su desarrollo responde a la Estrategia Territorial Europea (Postdam, 1999) y a la reciente Agenda Territorial de la UE (Leipzig, 2007).

    Las políticas y herramientas de desarrollo rural, entre ellas los Programas de Desarrollo Rural financiados con cargo al Programa FEADER durante la etapa 2007-2013 o la propia Ley 45/2007 para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Medio Rural, contribuyen al desarrollo territorial y regional. Éste debería ser de hecho el marco estratégico y político al que vincular, formal y operativamente un desarrollo rural que, en estos momentos, configura el segundo Pilar de la Política Agrícola Común (PAC). Aunque la normativa comunitaria obliga a la mutua contribución de los instrumentos financieros al Desarrollo Rural y a la Cohesión, lo cierto es que el marco institucional comunitario todavía no es plenamente satisfactorio para asegurar el grado de integración deseable entre las distintas intervenciones que, por diferentes vías, persiguen lo mismo: el desarrollo económico y social.

    La normativa y las herramientas de Ordenación Territorial, en la práctica, tienden a focalizarse en la gestión urbanística cuando deberían contribuir al logro de una mayor integración y mejor coordinación de las diferentes y múltiples políticas e instrumentos que inciden sobre el territorio. La mejora de estos niveles de integración y coordinación debería ser el primer requisito de “ordenación”.

    El medio rural suele identificarse con el sector primario, y más concretamente con las actividades agrarias que, por lo general, tienen un elevado peso en términos de producción y de empleo. Pero también ubica otras importantes actividades y servicios. Por ejemplo, la industria agroalimentaria, la artesanía tradicional, el turismo rural o la conservación de los espacios naturales guardan una estrecha relación con la ruralidad. Asimismo, los espacios rurales, dependiendo de su proximidad a los grandes núcleos urbanos, ejercen diferentes funciones de carácter residencial y ambiental.

    El tratamiento convencional de lo rural, como mero espacio físico que se diferencia del urbano, nunca ha resultado adecuado y, de hecho, se demuestra cada vez más inoperante. Los territorios rurales, al igual que los urbanos, son ámbitos dotados de una dinámica propia y compleja de relaciones sociales, económicas y geográficas. Pero además, y de forma creciente, los espacios urbanos y rurales se relacionan entre sí, no son entes aislados y la realidad es que, en la práctica, difícilmente puede precisarse dónde empiezan unos y dónde acaban los otros. La intensificación de estas relaciones es precisamente lo que ahora se valora expresamente como oportunidad para un mejor y más equilibrado desarrollo económico.

    En las últimas décadas se han producido importantes avances en relación con la consideración social y cultural del medio rural. La ciudad ha cambiado su percepción de lo rural, reconociendo y respetando los valores rurales. Hoy, la palabra ciudadano, no sólo se aplica a los que viven en la ciudad sino que, obviamente, incluye también a los que viven en el campo. Sin embargo todavía queda mucho por mejorar y avanzar en la adecuada comprensión del papel que juega el medio rural y sus actividades asociadas, sobre todo desde el punto de vista económico y político. Dicha comprensión es imprescindible para lograr que ya no sea preciso hablar de “desarrollo rural” y que lo que ahora se promueve como tal, se integre en una verdadera estrategia de “desarrollo regional”. Pero para lograr esto hace falta avanzar al mismo tiempo en la comprensión de lo que es realmente el desarrollo evitando confundirlo con el crecimiento económico que, como en estos momentos podemos constatar, son dos cosas bien distintas.

  • Prospection and selection of walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.) in Asturias with potential tolerance to Xantomonas arborícola pv. Juglandis (Xaj)

    Arrieta, A., Díaz, B., Frutos, D.

    In summer 2003 a first search was done whit the goal of finding adult walnut seedlings with leafs free of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj) spots. During that year about 150 walnut trees were pre-selected. However in successive years they had been discarded a number of genotypes that had shown some Xaj spots on leaves. At present they remain selected only 25 genotypes that year-after-year were keeping their leaves and nuts free of Xaj spots. In February 2007 some thin shoot tips out of the 25 genotypes had been removed and set to IMIDA of Murcia to be evaluated.

  • Influence of the temperature and the storage period on the physico-chemical parameters of Spanish honeys. Prediction of storage period using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Castro-Vázquez, L., de-Torres, C., Díaz-Maroto, M.C., Pérez-Coello, M.S.

    Three fresh Spanish honeys (citrus, heather and honeydew honeys) were stored for three, six, nine and twelve months at 10 ºC, 20 ºC and 40 ºC. The effect of storage conditions on honey parameters was tested by checking pH, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, proline content, diastase activity, electrical conductivity and HMF content. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to group the honey samples according to the temperature conditions and storage period. The values corresponding to the physiochemical parameters of the samples stored for up to six months at 10ºC and 20 ºC underwent hardly any variations in comparison with the fresh samples. From nine months’ storage, significant variations in the parameters analysed occurred even at room temperature. Finally, the honeys subjected to extreme storage temperatures (40 ºC) showed large deteriorations even in the third month of storage. The present study employed multiple linear regressions (MLR) to predict the citrus, heather and honeydew honeys storage period based on the values of their physicochemical parameters.

  • Distribution of natural stands of “pedunculate” and “rebollo” oaks in Galicia (Spain) in relation to topography, climate and soil

    Díaz-Maroto, I.J., Vila-Lameiro, P.

    This work has studied the distribution of the two oaks that occupy the majority of Galicia (NW Spain), “carballo” (Quercus robur L.) and “rebollo” (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.), beginning with the characterization of the sites occupying the natural stands of both species and the use of the TWINSPAN. It was based on the estimate of 25 ecological parameters (i.e. topography, climatic, and edaphic) through the sampling of 39 “carballo” plots and of 40 “rebollo” plots. The findings highlight the distribution of oaks is related, principally, with the climatic and topographical attributes of the territory, and to a smaller extent, with the possible edaphic determining factors. It was necessary to seek silvicultural alternatives in order to obtain more profitable economic production rather than the ones obtained presently in these forests, such as conversion to high forest, the improvement of silvopastoral or the restoration of degraded stands through reforestation with other broadleaves.

     

  • Analyzing with GIS and indicators the rural-urban territorial inequalities in a peripheral area of the European Union

    Fernandez-Manso. A.A., Martínez, J., Quintano, C., Fernández-Manso, O.

    Territorial inequality between rural and urban areas has important repercussions within the social and environmental sustainability of the planet. These inequalities are extremely important in countries such as Spain, where intense urbanization processes have taken place in the last decades. Knowing this problem is a key to design and evaluate the policies of rural or territorial development. The utilization of indicators and indexes implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS) lets undertaking operatively the dynamic knowledge of ruralurban inequalities. In this work is presented a useful methodology to make rural audits in the peripheral areas of the European Union based in the utilization of indicators and indexes within a GIS environment. As a result, 14 indicators and 3 synthetic indexes are presented, which provide knowledge about the problems within the study area.

  • Toward proactive management in relict Mediterranean mountain forest dominated by Abies pinsapo

    Linares, J.C., Carreira, J.A.

    The Spanish and Moroccan Pinsapo-fir forests have been recognized as areas of high biodiversity and endemism. Global Change, mainly throughout Land-use and Climate Changes can endanger this flora. It is necessary to know stand structure and biodiversity of these relict forests in order to apply conservation strategies. Several structural features, biodiversity and environmental variables were assessed in the wider Pinsapofir forests. Biodiversity values were higher on Moroccan stands while maximum treesize class variability and stand structure diversity was yielded in an old-growth Spanish stand. Mean tree-ring width showed a steady pattern on Moroccan sands, while Spanish forests yielded a higher variance and sudden growth decline over the last third of the XX century. Our results suggest that the preservation of minor perturbation regimen by local populations would also help to preserve the whole biodiversity of this relict habitat.

  • Different methods for predicting soil hydraulic properties: estimation of hydrolimits in NW Spain

    Martínez, E.M., Cancela, J.J., Cuesta, T.S., Neira, X.X.

    Different indirect methods have been developed for modelling and estimating soil hydraulic properties, particularly hydrolimits, based on properties that can be easily measured. All these methods are based on the use of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). In the study, the use of different PTFs developed by international authors using SOILPAR 2.00 and by Spanish authors such as Soto et al. (2001), who developed a PTF for NW Spain, is analyzed and compared with the use of a third approach at the local level. This third approach develops specific PTFs for the study area, both considered as a whole and divided into three categories according to soil, crop type and rooting depth. Favourable results were obtained for permanent wilting point (PWP) with the three approaches based on data from direct estimation with a pressure plate (PP) and a water activity meter (WAM). In regard to SOILPAR, the most suitable models were Mayr-Jarvis for WAM and EPIC for PP, with a value of R2 0.81 in both cases. The maximum value obtained for R2 using regional PTFs was 0.66. The development of specific PTFs for the study area revealed the most appropriate method. In the case of specific PTFs, the results were favourable, obtained values of R2 above 0.8, for estimates of permanent wilting point (PWP), field capacity (FC) and available water content (AWC). The results for FC and AWC were favourable when the area was divided according to the categories considered.

  • Restless rural spaces in the Iberian Peninsula – Montes Veciñais en Man Común in Galicia and Baldios in the north of Portugal

    Ribeiro, J., Cristovão, A.

    For centuries an inseparable part of the organization of rural life in Galicia and in northern Portugal, the commonlands (Montes Veciñais en Man Común and Baldios, respectively) continue to play a significant role in the present day. However, as the rural world they belong to, they are now facing a number of threats and challenges. Drawing a comparison between the situations in Galicia and in the north of Portugal, this paper looks into the main historical determinants of the existence of the commons and aims to illustrate their present-day significance with reference to the collective action problem. Features related to the commoners’ (veciños and compartes) characteristics and to the way they use their lands are analyzed in two cases (one in Galicia and one in the north of Portugal). It concludes summarizing differences and prevailing remarkable similarities between Galician and Portuguese commonlands and identifying constraints and opportunities to their current performance.

  • Traditional forest management in Santa Catarina del Monte

    Rodríguez, G., Zapata, E., Vázquez, V., Rodríguez, M., Martínez, B., Vizcarra, I.

    Several studies have highlighted the importance of forest resources for the nutrition and economic wellbeing of Mexican rural families. However we still need to explore the gender differences embedded in the knowledge of such resources. The objective of this work is to analyze the ways in which the gender division of labor leads to knowledge gender differentiation in Santa Catarina del Monte, Mexico. Data were collected using qualitative (individual and group interviews) and quantitative (surveys) methods. Results show statistically significant gender differences in the knowledge of fungi, medicinal plants, trees and shrubs. These differences are due to the social construction of gender roles. It is important to consider these differences when designing programs for biodiversity conservation.

  • New approaches to sustainable forest Management in Galicia: A review

    Rodríguez-Vicente, V., Marey-Pérez, M.F.

    The forestry sector in Galicia has experienced in recent decades strong growth in regard to the percentage of forest area in the territory settled on land formerly used for agriculture and livestock. This increase has not been matched surface on the scale of economic and social impact, largely due to structural deficiencies and that the sector has not been corrected for forest policy developed. This paper conducts a review of those management models applied in other countries with a longer history and forest have meant progress in the development of the sector and can act as benchmarks for the implementation of new alternative models of forest management in Galicia.

  • Land evolution analysis in Galicia and changes on the ownership of the area occupied by Atlantic oak

    Rodríguez, P., Rego, L., Fernández, V.

    alicia has the right environmental conditions for the suitable development of Atlantic oak forests. Since the National Forest Inventory database is the most important forest database in our country, it is appropriate to use it as a basis to make a comparative study of these stands. The first step was to compare the design of the inventories, since both the methodology as applied technology are different from each other, so one must be cautious with the results. The second step is the comparison of the concepts used in each inventory and identification of common parameters within which, in some cases, it has been necessary assimilation of concepts or approach to obtain a comparison as realistic as possible. With this information, has developed a database that has been used to obtain summary tables that allow comparisons between inventories, species and provinces, and have the information graphically and an analysis of variations occurred from the first and third inventory.