Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Consejo de Redacción

    Antecedentes

    En primer lugar, es necesario referirnos a los antecedentes que han propiciado el nacimiento de esta revista, la cuál surge de la evolución y consolidación del Departamento de Ingeniería Agroforestal como unidad de investigación. En el año 1993, comenzó su actividad la Escuela Politécnica Superior (EPS) del Campus de Lugo. Cuando este centro emprendió su andadura, el número de doctores era muy escaso, siendo la preocupación principal impartir una docencia de calidad. Además, había que estructurar un nuevo centro, con diferentes enfoques según las distintas titulaciones, y con el problema de confeccionar nuevos planes de estudio. Obviamente, esta situación no era la idónea para favorecer una dedicación a la investigación. Con el paso de los años, el dinamismo del centro fue cambiando de forma clara, llevando a cabo un proceso donde departamentos, grupos de investigación y profesores tuvieron un papel protagonista en su transformación radical.

    En la actualidad, la EPS ha superado muchas de sus limitaciones. Gracias a su evolución, ha pasado a convertirse en un centro de referencia en el Campo Agroforestal en Galicia, España, y cada vez más, en el contexto internacional. Todo esto ha convertido nuestro centro en un interlocutor fundamental para transmitir las necesidades de investigación y desarrollo del medio agroforestal al Sistema Gallego de Investigación y a nuestra propia Universidad. Actualmente, cerca de 90 profesores forman parte del Departamento de Ingeniería Agroforestal y desarrollan su actividad en diez áreas de conocimiento. En el año 1998, comenzó a impartirse un programa de doctorado propio denominado “Ingeniería Agroforestal”, hasta el curso 2004/05. A partir de entonces, sufrió una modificación y paso a denominarse “Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Rural”. En el año 2007, fue distinguido con la Mención de Calidad del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia para el período 2007/2011.

    Los grupos de investigación del departamento han evolucionado desde la búsqueda de una significación nacional hasta convertirse en una referencia en el campo de la investigación de la Ingeniería Agroforestal, tanto en el contexto nacional como internacional. A título de ejemplo, la Asociación Española de Ingeniería de Proyectos (AEIPRO), en el año 2007, invitó a miembros del Consejo de Redacción de la presente revista a organizar el Congreso Internacional de Ingeniería de Proyectos; al igual que este año la Sociedad Española de AgroIngeniería (SEA) lo hizo con su Congreso Ibérico, y la Asociación Española de Ingeniería Gráfica (INGEGRAF) con su Congreso Internacional.

    Definición de la revista

    La revista “Spanish Journal of Rural Development” cuenta en su Comité Científico, tanto con investigadores europeos como americanos, en especial de América Latina, debido a nuestra consideración de revista que acepta la publicación de artículos, tanto en español como en inglés. En este contexto, es indudable que los países de habla española jugaran un papel fundamental en su difusión. Es una revista nueva que nace sin limitaciones, con una idea de potencialidad cara al futuro y con la pretensión de ser un vehículo de intercambio para la comunidad científica internacional; quedando enclavada dentro del campo que la base de datos JCR denomina “Agricultural Engineering”. En este sentido, estaría dirigida, tanto al mundo docente e investigador, así como al mundo profesional, privado y de la Administración, que trabaja en temas relacionados con el Desarrollo Rural.
    Intentaremos ser un forum de discusión para mejorar el conocimiento del Desarrollo Sostenible dentro del mundo rural, buscando soluciones a los problemas que se le plantean a las poblaciones locales. Se trata de una revista interdisciplinar en la que tendrán cabida trabajos centrados en aspectos diversos: forestales, agronómicos, medioambientales, sociales, de planeamiento rural, de cooperación internacional, económicos…, pero sin perder nunca de vista el Desarrollo Rural. Está en el ánimo del Consejo de Redacción no sólo, despertar el interés en el lector por los temas abordados, sino también, crear un marco propicio para dar voz a una discusión razonada sobre estos temas a través de la difusión de experiencias y trabajos diversos.

    Objetivos

    A la hora de plantear los objetivos, el Consejo de Redacción ha intentado buscar la necesidad, la oportunidad y la singularidad de una revista como “Spanish Journal of Rural Development”. Estos objetivos serían los siguientes:

    1. Necesidad
    Dentro del campo que la base de datos JCR denomina “Agricultural Engineering” únicamente figuran 9 revistas. Por lo tanto, siendo conscientes de que formar parte de esta prestigiosa base de datos es una dura tarea que requiere años de esfuerzo, queda patente que existe un hueco importante de revistas dedicadas a esta temática. Por supuesto, llegar a formar parte de dicha base de datos es un objetivo inicial, el cuál no renunciamos alcanzar en el futuro, aún sabiendo que el reto es muy complicado, pero está dentro del propósito del Consejo de Redacción toda nuestra confianza en que “Spanish Journal of Rural Development” contribuya a cubrir el hueco existente en este campo.

    2. Oportunidad
    La oportunidad de esta nueva revista puede quedar reflejada en los siguientes puntos:
    a) Surge en un momento de gran interés, por lo que su puesta en marcha cubriría una escasa ausencia en la difusión
    de resultados del gran número de trabajos de investigación que se llevan a cabo relacionados con el Desarrollo Rural.
    b) Además, la creación de la nueva revista, tal y como se comentó, ayudaría a cubrir el hueco existente en la actualidad de revistas, tanto nacionales como internacionales, dedicadas a esta temática.

    3. Singularidad
    En “Spanish Journal of Rural Development” tendrían cabida trabajos de investigación que se realicen en sistemas agroforestales, principalmente de la zona atlántica del sur de Europa, territorio con una enorme potencialidad, tanto agrícola como forestal, confluyendo en él, una importante vocación forestal (bosques tanto naturales como cultivados) con una fuerte tradición agrícola, forrajera y ganadera. Todo ello desde la perspectiva de su influencia en el desarrollo rural de las poblaciones locales. Por supuesto, también se aceptaran trabajos relacionados con esta temática de otras zonas. Enumeramos a continuación una serie de líneas prioritarias:
    -Agricultura sostenible y protección de los recursos naturales
    -Gestión forestal y revalorización de la función productiva del bosque para la mejora de la calidad de vida de las poblaciones locales
    -Aspectos sociales y económicos de los cambios en la agricultura y la gestión forestal -Gestión medioambiental en sistemas agroforestales
    -Gestión del agua y de los recursos hídricos como indicadores de la calidad de vida y el desarrollo
    sostenible en el mundo rural -Utilización de la producción primaria, agrícola y forestal, como fuente de energías renovables
    -Uso sostenible del territorio
    -Producción ecológica, calidad, seguridad alimentaria y, denominaciones de origen.

    Por último, destacar que la singularidad de la revista quedaría reflejada en dos aspectos principales: el primero de ellos, por tratarse de una publicación centrada principalmente en temas de Desarrollo Rural de un área geográfica muy amplia, la zona atlántica del sur de Europa (sur de Francia, norte de España, Galicia y norte de Portugal), aunque no exclusivamente. Y, por otro lado, al tratarse de una revista que acepta para su publicación, trabajos tanto en español como en inglés, pensamos que despertará un gran interés en nuestros compañeros de América latina que trabajan en estos temas.

    Por último, las novedades que pretende aportar la revista “Spanish Journal of Rural Development” frente a otras dentro de su campo de estudio, humildemente pensamos que serían muy amplias. Simplemente queremos destacar algunas de ellas:
    -Es una revista con un campo de difusión muy amplio, tal y como se ha comentado, y dirigida tanto a investigadores y docentes como a profesionales y personal de la Administración.
    -El hecho de que los trabajos que tengan cabida en nuestra revista deban tener como enfoque común el “Desarrollo Rural”, supone una cierta especialización en este ámbito que cubriría un hueco importante.
    -El Comité Científico, está formado por un conjunto de expertos, tanto nacionales como internacionales, que trabajan en las líneas prioritarias de la revista que consideramos que poseen un gran prestigio investigador y su composición se adecua a los criterios de calidad y pluralidad contemplados en las directrices oficiales para la evaluación de revistas científicas de la FECYT.
    -Hay que resaltar la importancia de que se trata de una revista que acepta artículos en español, lo que supone abrir un abanico a posibles lectores que tienen cierta dificultad con el idioma inglés. Sin perder de vista que el idioma inglés es el más utilizado a nivel científico internacional.
     

  • Ecological status of river Estanco, WFD indicators and definition

    Muiño, D., Neira, X.X.

    The WFD aims to solve the problems derived from the use of water, a limited natural resource, by extending the scope of protection to all water uses. The WDF defines the ecological status of water bodies by characterizing each water body type and establishing reference conditions for the quality elements. This paper identifies valid indicators for defining the ecological status of Estanco River Basin, located in the province of Lugo, NW of Spain, by using the methodology proposed in the WFD. In addition, this study highlights the obstacles for a correct application of the WFD in the study river basin. After characterization of the study river basin and establishment of specific reference conditions, this study presents conclusions about the usefulness of the WFD in the development of specific programmes for improving the ecological status of rivers.

  • Wastewater management evaluation in rural areas. A case study: Galicia, Spain

    Cervera, A., García-Freire, X., Maseda, A.R.

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Commission considers water supply and sanitation on agricultural and forestry holdings as a part of water management policy. In this sense, this study analyses the current situation in Galicia, European Union, in terms of the management of wastes derived from dairying, and the attitudes of farmers toward this issue and government regulations. The study was carried out by conducting a field survey to 4384 farm owners. The farms were classified according to the income level (size) and the priority status of the farm, and the current situation was defined based on the results obtained from the survey. The most positive aspect revealed by the survey is the willingness of farmers to improve wastewater management, which is a meaningful data because 72% of the farmers declared to use some system for wastewater collection or treatment.

  • Satisfaction of human needs as structuring argument of the sustainability assessment using indicators

    Marín, A., Neira, X.X., Cervera, A.

    Inside the current worldwide frame of climate change, economic globalization and population growth, the irrigation agriculture faces a series of problems which have to be considered as a challenge to our sustainability. To speak about sustainability in irrigation it must be stated that irrigation agriculture is a goods production system with the objective of satisfying human needs. From this definition, the concept of sustainable development as “satisfying the needs of present generations without compromising the chances of the future ones to attend their own needs” achieves full meaning. Therefore, to develop a methodology of sustainability evaluation, focused as a check-out of the level of satisfaction of the human needs of the local population, and of the variation of such level of satisfaction through time, may allow a more complete and certain vision of reality than a mere economic evaluation, but it can also bring more trustable and comparable data than other methods of sustainability evaluation in which the economic, social and ecologic aspects would be studied in a less vertebrated way. A conceptual frame which includes aspects of eco-efficiency, endogenous development, principles of caution and encouragement of equality and of social issues, empowering of freedoms and self-contention of consumption, and that, for agricultural environments, tries to focus the understanding of agro-ecosystems into an agro-ecologic point of view, offers solid possibilities to elaborate a methodology for sustainability evaluation in irrigation according to the satisfaction of human needs.

  • Quality of life for women farmers

    Cardín, M., Rodríguez-Couso, M.

    By means of a postal survey, interviews and group discussion sessions, we investigated the influence of integration in ICOS, a farming services cooperative centred on Chantada (Galicia, N.W. Spain. on the quality of life and future prospects of its female members. These are women who aspire to achieve urban standards of individual and collective development without abandoning their rural, agricultural lifestyle. Proposals are made as to how such endeavours might be supported, particularly as regards measures that might be taken by farm cooperatives.

  • Neural network analysis of dairy farm efficiency in Galicia

    Irimia, S., Resch, C.

    Dairy cattle farming is the main industry in the Autonomous Community of Galicia, NW of Spain. The dairy sector is undergoing an important restructuring process prompted by the accession of Spain to the European Union in 1986. In the last twenty years, the great transformation of the sector has brought about the closure of less competitive farms and the establishment of new farms clearly oriented to commercial production. Today, the transformation process continues and the break-even point for Galician farms is set at farms with 50 dairy cows, which means that only 5.4% of Galician farms are non-viable, even though the farms included in this percentage contain 20% of the cows required. With a view to achieving farm viability, the aim of our research team is to improve efficiency in the organization of production on the farm. A detailed analysis of a representative sample of dairy farms has been carried out for this purpose. The results obtained for labour productivity are very limited and burden farm profitability. In order to develop farm improvement proposals, a neural network was used to correlate farm variables such as milking system, cleaning system and feeding system with the labour required to perform these operations. The results of correlation analysis show a strong dependence between farm profitability and the milking, cleaning and feeding systems used. According to results, profitability increases with the increase in farm size. Considering the high potential for improvement of Galician farms, it has been concluded that further studies are required to determine the most suitable solutions for each particular farm and to achieve greater efficiency in production systems.

  • Recent trends in dairy barn design for farms in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Carreira Pérez, X.C., Mariño Allegue, R.A., Méndez, M.

    Diverse aspects of dairy barn design have been explored by researchers. The application of research results to farming practice evidently offers advantages for animal welfare, management and productivity. The present study investigated the extent to which research findings have been transferred to farms over the last decade (1993 -2003) in Galicia (NW Spain). In this region, most dairy farms are small family-run operations with less than 100 cows. In 1993, barn design in the region was characterized by a questionnaire study of 150 farms, using a purpose-designed questionnaire focusing on the design of the principal housing areas (resting/feeding area, exercise area, milking area). We then performed more detailed analyses of 16 of these farms. In view of the results of this first study, we subsequently developed and distributed a series of barn design recommendations. The degree of uptake of these recommendations was assessed by studies of the same farms in 1999 and 2003. Our results indicate that in 1993 many or most farms a) were not using soft bedding materials, b) had insufficient space in the feeding area for the feed distribution system used, c) experienced hoof health problems related to inadequate exercise areas, and d) had slow milking procedures attributable to inappropriate milking area design. Design recommendations developed in response to these problems included use of soft bedding materials, increased space per cow at the feed barrier, and frontal entry for the milking area. By 2003 most farms were using soft bedding, had introduced changes in the feeding system resolving the problems related to lack of space, had provided an external exercise area, and had improved milking area design with provision of a frontal holding area. We conclude that over the study period farmers in this region rapidly adopted research-generated design recommendations, and in many cases additionally introduced useful innovations that they had devised themselves.

  • Factors that affect to the value of stored potatoes with EU Protected Geogrphical Indication “Patata de Galicia”

    Gómez, J., Gómez, M., Ordóñez, L.

    This paper studied the effects of the storage system, year, area of origin and farmer on produce storage losses of Galician potato with EU Protected Geographical Indication. The potatoes were stored from October to May without using sprouting inhibitors. The main types of loss were identified and the value of the stored produce was calculated monthly in three storage systems: refrigerated, ventilated and traditional. The storage system presented the clearest effect on losses, which were also affected by the grower, year of harvest / storage, and to a lesser extent by the area of origin. Apart from the cold storage, sprouting was the main cause of product loss, which impeded long term storage without applying sprouting inhibitors. Losses were found to be considerable in the traditional storage, causing the stored product value to drop continuously. The value remained mostly stable in the ventilated storage. It grew continuously in the refrigerated storage, reaching a maximum in May, due to an increase of the potatoes’ price in the regional markets.

  • Lighting in cattle and pig farms in Galicia

    Fernández, M.D., Lamosa, S., Perdigones Borderías, A.

    Twelve cattle livestock buildings, six dairy farms and six fattening cattle ones, and other twelve pigs houses, classified in gestation, maternity and fattening, were studied during a full day in July and august 2008. Morning and evening illuminance maps were done taking measures during 24 hours and others specific measures going round each building once in the morning and another in the evening. The dairy farms showed higher illuminance values than fattening cattle ones. More than the 30% of fattening cattle farms area showed illuminance values lower than 50 luxes, while this area was lower than 15% in dairy farms. The dairy farms showed higher illuminance values than fattening cattle ones. Illuminance values lower than 50 luxes were found in more than the 30% of fattening cattle farms area, and less than 15% of dairy farms area. Spatial and temporary distributions of lighting levels values were non-uniform in pig houses. These lighting levels mainly depended of the pig requirements, so the recommended values for workers were secondary. Lighting levels in maternity were lower than in fattening, and the highest values were in gestation.

  • Comparative autoecology of Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl stands in the northwest of the Península Ibérica

    Cábado, S., Ribeiro, J.A., García, E., Barcala-Pérez, E.

    According to III National Forest Inventory, the pedunculate oak stands (Quercus robur L.) cover in Galicia, an area of 187789 ha, 14% of total wooded area, although this specie appears mixed with other native broadleaves. For sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl) the inventory does not give area data. The silviculture of oak stands is part of the forest mythology and, in particular, the oaks silviculture, is developed and updated in Central European countries where this species have great socioeconomic importance, such as France and Germany. On the other hand, the management of thousands of hectares oak stands silvicultural techniques being perfected. The situation in our country is very far of this context. The best stands are located in valleys or gentle slope on deep and loose soils. The substrate is varied, preferring siliceous. They development in sub-montane and montane levels with subhumid and hiperhumid ombroclimate. They require an annual precipitation above 600 mm and certain amount of rainfall and humidity, both atmospheric and soil, during the summer, this aspect is more marked in sessile oak. Quercus robur is robust temperament specie, light-demanding and does not tolerate shade in the early development stage; therefore, the seedlings soon languish under cover. However, Quercus petraea has a robust less temperament is made up for the fact of that its stands are normally placed in high altitude areas. Both spices are very suitable for coppice forest treatment, however, given the current conditions, the high forest is the most appropriate stand form, as much for production forest as protection and social use forest.

  • Some of the biogeochemical characteristics of the mountain province of Dagestan

    Dibirova, A.P.

    The microelement content in the soils of Mountainous Dagestan was studied by as. It is shown that total microelements content and its distribution in the soil profile depend on many factors, including the absolute height of the territory and the character of soilforming rocks. Dagestan is one of the Republics of Northern Caucasus. According to the relief it is divided into four main physic-geographical parts: Lowland, Foothill, Mountainous Dagestan (Alpine zone), this one is 1000 meters above the sea level. It contents 38,6% of total area of the republic [B. A. Akaev, Z. V. Ataev, B. S. Gadzhiev, and Z. Kh. Gadzhiev, Physical Geography of Dagestan (Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1996) [in Russian]; S. U. Kerimkhanov, Dagestan Soils: Brief Characterization and Use (Dagknigoizdat, Makhachkala, 1976) [in Russian]; Soil Resources of Dagestan. Their Conservation and Rational Use (Dagknigoizdat, Makhachkala, 1998) [in Russian]]. The concentration of Mn, Zn, B, I and the content of humus and pH of the soil for the main types of soils are determined. The regularities of the content and the distribution of Mn, Zn, B, I in the interested soils are detected. It is found that the soils of the Alpine Zone are enough enriched with Zinc and Boron, but inadequately supported with Manganese and Iodine. The correlative connection between the content of Zinc, Boron and Humus are not identifiable. The dependence between the amount of Manganese, Zinc and pH of the soil is not found, and in case of Boron and Iodine a small dependence is available.

  • Evaluation of different systems of production of farming substrate obtained from gorse (Ulex europaeus L.)

    Gómez, J., Minhorst, R., Piñeiro-Iglesias, I.

    Among the most commonly used materials from production of farming substrates, the peat is the main component of the same, also many composted organic materials. The use of different peat types mainly from the Northern European countries, Canada and USA, have been subjected to the environmental pressure, which it forces to seek new alternative raw materials to peat. In the present work, it was to assess four different composting systems to achieve a suitable substrate for use in the horticulture, fruit growing, gardening, landscaping and forestry. For this, will be used as raw material, gorse (Ulex europaeus L.), more abundant species in the Galician forests (NW Spain), both in reforestation forests, where gorse grows between the trees, as in those that are not subject to exploitation. Various systems have been established, in order to produce compost from previously ground scrub. The four systems evaluated have been the following: 1) Horizontal rotary digester composting, water intake; 2) Horizontal rotary digester composting, but with a minimum contribution of water to avoid drying the total of stand; 3) Static vertical digester composting, water intake; 4) Static vertical composting digester with a minimum water supply. The process has been developed over a period of three months. During this time, we have measured the physical and chemical variables of the obtained product. With the results obtained, it can be concluded, that with the composting system in horizontal rotary digester water intake, it is possible to obtain a product suitable for use as farming substrate, and the other three systems produce a material, that is not the same quality, but that could be used without problem, mixing with other raw materials, producing substrates of quality.

  • Description of sessile oak stands (Quercus petraea Matts. (Liebl)) in the northwestern peninsular by means of the study of its Height-Diameter functions

    Rodríguez-Campos, A.M.

    The total height of the tree and normal diameter are the two first variables measured and analyzed in all forest inventory made in forest. The approach of modelling and forestry production studies requires the knowledge scatter plot height-diameter sufficiently wide to provide detailed information. As prelude those analysis, it is essential to predict the height from diametrical dimensions. Just as it expected, these height-diameter models are strongly influenced because they are even-aged stands, the accuracy of functions is affected. However, when the uniformity of stand is not wished in the ages and diameters distribution, the accuracy of those functions is affected. In this paper, and basing on in statistical tools for accuracy, were applied linear and nonlinear regression methods in order to define a acceptable Height-Diameter model to the uneven-aged stands of one specie of broadleaved of slow growth like Quercus petraea. In all cases we are worked with one part of data, leaving other small part for to validate the model: approximately 25%. Finally, we analyzed whether the waste had bias or not, which is represented the waste (difference between the real value and predicted value by the model) opposite estimated variable value, getting to the evidence of the non-existence of bias.