Spanish Journal of Rural Development

The Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Galician Association of Researchers for Rural Development Asociación Gallega de Investigadores para el Desarrollo Rural (AGAIDERU).

Span. j. rural dev. is a multidisciplinary journal which publishes original research articles of practical application in the fields of forestry, agronomy, the environment, rural planning, international cooperation and socioeconomic issues. The overall focus is on the sustainable rural development of local populations, within identified Priority Lines

The journal also applies a policy of exchange with various scientific journals, at both national and international levels, and it is indexed in important scientific databases.

Journal

  • Introduction

    Editor SJRD

    The works that are part of this special number of Spanish Journal of Rural Development (SJRD) are the result of the First International Congress on Rural Tourism: "Capacities strengthening in the communities", organized by the Academic Group "Socio-cultural impacts of the tourism" of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico and Brunca Regional Seat of the National University of Costa Rica, hold between 25 and 27 September, 2013 in Costa Rica.

    It should be noted that although it is the first of special number of SJRD published this year, we hope that it is not the only one, and it could suppose, a brilliant new step of our journal because moving in a complex and tediously environment is a laborious work, looking for an admired scientific quality. I conclude, therefore, as it could not be in another way, solemnly: "The pen is the tongue of the soul; as are the thoughts engendered there, so will be the things written " (" The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quijote "by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra).
     

  • Prologue

    Gregoria Rodríguez Muñoz

    La investigación relacionada con el turismo en espacios rurales es reciente, sin embargo ha ganado interés especial en la comunidad científica por los logros y obstáculos que presenta en su ejercicio en las distintas áreas geográficas, situación que se ve plasmada en la organización, planificación, impactos y modos de vida de la población receptora. Estos temas también son de interés de estudiantes de turismo, sector privado, organizaciones no gubernamentales y la propia comunidad receptora, quienes trabajan desde diferentes ámbitos para disminuir los impactos negativos generados por el turismo con el objetivo de maximizar los beneficios.

    Por tanto académicos de diferentes instituciones educativas en el mundo se dan a la tarea de crear espacios de discusión y análisis en foros, congresos, seminarios, etcétera. Los trabajos aquí presentados son el resultado del Primer Congreso Internacional sobre Turismo Rural: Fortalecimiento de las capacidades en las comunidades, organizado por el Cuerpo Académico “Impactos socioculturales del turismo” de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México y la Sede Regional Brunca de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica llevado a cabo del 25 al 27 de septiembre del 2013 en Costa Rica.

    Estos trabajos se agrupan, por un lado aquellos que dan propuestas para mejorar la gestión del turismo, los temas están relacionados con el diagnóstico, marketing, rentabilidad y comercialización de productos turísticos. Por otro lado se presentan tres trabajos en los que se analizan los impactos socioculturales del turismo: la pobreza, las desigualdades de género y el turismo como una estrategia en espacios rurales.

    La revisión de los trabajos fueron realizados por investigadoras e investigadores mexicanos especialistas en el tema y de diferentes espacios académicos como la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, la Unidad Académica de Cozumel de la Universidad de Quintana Roo, el Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas y Rurales de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, La Universidad Autónoma de Hidalgo y la Universidad de Colima, a quienes se les agradece profundamente su tiempo y contribución al tema aquí expuesto. Finalmente felicitamos a las personas que hicieron posible la realización del congreso y a los y las autoras de los artículos aquí presentados.

     

  • Tourist participatory diagnosis of a case study in the Restrepo municipality, Colombia

    Ramírez, E.D.

    The Participatory Tourism Diagnosis before a methodology is a technique of work for managers and planners of tourism at the local level to carry out initial studies on tourism present in a territory with the role and direct participation of the different actors involved in tourism development. In this sense, the present study brings together the results of the application of Participatory Tourism Diagnosis, in the municipality of Restrepo, Colombia, identifying and valuing attractions in the area. The procedure was based on three phases: the first corresponding to the initial diagnosis of tourism in the municipality. The second, the development of the inventory of natural and cultural attractions participatory manner starting with the identification and subsequently evaluate them. Finally, the third phase consisted of the spatial location and attractive geographic characterized. We conclude that the diagnosis Tourist used departs from traditional technical methods to identify the supply of attractive, since part of the recognition and empowerment of local stakeholders of tourism, promoting community service and local leadership.

  • Is the tourism an option to "soothe" the poverty?

    Figueroa Hernández, E., Mendoza Ontiveros M.M., Pérez Soto, F., Godínez Montoya, L.

    Currently there are 1200 million people worldwide living in extreme poverty. For these circumstances, tourism has seen as an opportunity to alleviate poverty in rural communities. There are many features of tourism as an economic activity that makes it particularly interesting for low-income countries and disadvantaged communities that people inhabit; thus, the objective of this study was to analyze through the review of national and global case study reports, if tourism impacts in reducing poverty in rural communities where the activity occurs. Among the main findings, which are consistent with the approaches of Gascon (2011), is that the focus of tourism benefits a small group of the community, the rest gets marginal income that does not allow them to think of tourism as an option to improve their conditions, seeing migration as a more profitable opportunity. Thus, the approach pro-poor tourism (PPT) did not fight for equality, and may even represent problems for a portion of the population, as poverty and marginalization depends less on the amount of income earned but on the position of the individual within the social structure. As noted by theorists of "social exclusion", a person or social group may own or have access to the means to survive, but being marginalized in the fields of political, cultural and economic decision.

  • Performance and fractalization as metabolization tools of rural spaces. The case of the Querétaro Cheese a Wine Route

    Thomé, H., Vizcarra, I., Espinoza, A.

    This research was based on a study case approach that analyzed the mechanisms used in the implementation of tourism in a cheese and wine producing area in central Mexico. This ethnographic study was conducted in thirteen establishments belonging to the Queretaro Cheese a Wine Route. Fractal theory and performance theory were used to detect territorial appropriation mechanisms; these ones are associated with rural spaces reproduction and performance of traditional activities, which have been adapted to tourism. We concluded that the ability to transform the space for developing tourism activities is associated with the possession of certain resources, so that the benefits of tourism are distributed asymmetrically and its effectiveness as rural development strategy is ambivalent.

  • Tourism development model: Case of Tepotzotlán and El Oro, Magical Towns of the State of Mexico

    Rosas-Jaco, M.I., Almeraya-Quintero, S.X., Guajardo-Hernández; L.G.

    Tourism is an activity that is closely related to the economic context, however, in most cases the strategies are developed for tourism arise outside the local society. Tourism must be presented not as an end in itself but as a development tool that. The problem is not tourism, but the application of these models in completely different environments. The objective of this research is to characterize the tourism development model prevailing in Tepotzotlán and El Oro, regarding the trade and jobs created from appointment as “Pueblo Mágico” for these purpose two hundred and forty seven surveys were applied to different actors. The results show that the model of development that prevails in Tepotzotlán and El Oro relative to “Programa Pueblos Mágicos” is partially integrated. Therefore, tourism through “Programa Pueblos Mágicos” has failed to be a facilitator for the development of other economic activities of the population leading to this expanding inequality gap between businesses dedicated to providing travel services and those without.

  • Community tourism and gender: the incorporation of women into the tourism project of El Ejido El Rosario, Ocampo, Mexico

    Rodríguez, G., Vizcarra, I.

    The objective of this study was to understand the participation of women in the community based touristic project of El Rosario, Michoacán, Mexico, located within the protected natural area of the Biosphere Reserve of the Monarch Butterfly, as well as knowing how women distribute the benefits from their participation. The study was carried out between 2013 and 2014, using qualitative (17 semistructured interviews and participating observation) and quantitative techniques (descriptive statistics from 20 questionnaires). Women participate in most of the operational activities of the project, except those which are assigned exclusively to men, such as guiding the visitors on horse rides. The direction Committee of the project follows the rules of the Ejido Assembly, hence women do not participate in decision making. However, they have certain freedom to use the income obtained. It is concluded that community based projects must be designed with a gender perspective in order to be successful, if not, they will only reinforce the existing inequalities.

  • Can alternative tourism strengthen local development in Latin America?

    Chávez-Dagostino, R.M., Maoldonado, O.A., Ramos, K.J., Espinoza, R.

    The consensus about the benefits that tourism generates has made more and more communities want to join this dynamic in search of a better quality of life, stable job properly paid or generating social enterprises. Experiences worldwide rebel improvements, but generally does not cause these changes locally, so in this paper are analyzed the constraints to the achievement of local development through alternative tourism in rural areas. A 14 conditions matrix was generated that 19 Latin American researchers with experience in alternative tourism in rural communities, rated on a Likert scale. Their answers were sorted by frequency. Besides word clouds on constraints and limitations for achieving local development through tourism were developed. The results showed that the factors that influence local development are dependent on representatives of local governments; the ability to participate is an enabler local development through alternative tourism projects and corruption is the main limitation.

  • Tourism as a complementary activity of fishing in rural communities. Case Bahía de Chamela, Jalisco

    Maldonado, O.A., Flores, L.M., Chávez-Dagostino, R.M., Bravo, M.L.

    At the bay of Chamela in Jalisco state, fishing predominates as economic activity, followed by agriculture. Being a rural area that supports its economy in the primary sector, is prone to recurrent changes related to varied factors such as climate change, the decline in the volumes of fish catch and constant changes in land use due to growth urban area, including tourism projects. Therefore, it has been necessary to look for complementary options to traditional economic activities in the area and that is why we explore how local fishing coexists with other activities like tourism in the area. For this, interviews and surveys with local stakeholders (fishermen and local authorities) were conducted. It was found that fishing in the bay is artisanal and small scale, and that the link to tourism, is the catch sale to tourism sector and the travel by sea. The last is performed in and around a protected area, where rural coastal dwellers manage to enter to the model of community-based alternative tourism. Alternative tourism has had a poor and temporary impact on the local economy and is carried out in a disorderly way, fact that prevents higher profits.

  • How we show the face. Map of associativity and marketing strategy for rural tourism SMEs

    Angulo, J.G.

    It was observed as a predominant feature in the SMEs of hospitality, case specific small hotels, inns, agrotourist development and other alternative establishments levels low in average annual occupation, standardization in the cycle of the product, low profitability, weak image and lack of marketing strategy. This assertion stems from a field investigation made entrepreneurs of SMEs in 8 countries of Latin America, Spain and Portugal, with aim to propose a set of strategies and actions about associativity, marketing and advertising to improve its occupancy levels. According to Arias (2004), field research "is the collection of data directly from the reality in which events occur, without manipulating or controlling some variables". To achieve this goal the research part a field exploration, with a random sampling to 105 projects, in addition to 315 surveys guests. Then to generate proposals took into account the opinion of experts and documentation. Research allowed to know the problems in these types of providers which focuses on the ignorance and little use of marketing and advertising strategies, which will suggest strategies and actions in accordance with their characteristics. This aspect is conclusive and decisive about the need of promoting mechanisms for cooperation, training or technical assistance enabling the knowledge of these techniques.